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瑞士小鎮的山脈行銷傳奇

The town that sold mountains to the world
瑞士小鎮的山脈行銷傳奇

There’s a story that makes it abundantly clear how a small band of English holidaymakers changed Switzerland forever. It involves a bet between hotelier Johannes Badrutt and an aristocratic group of merchants and landowners that took place on a damp September evening in St Moritz in 1864. As the vacationers sat around the fire at the Engadiner Kulm Hotel, dreading the prospect of returning to the foggy London winter, the Swiss manager saw a golden opportunity.

傳說有個故事非常清楚地述說了一小群英國度假游客是如何徹底改變了瑞士的旅游業。1864年,九月的圣莫里茨(St Moritz),夜晚氣候濕潤。一群商人和地主組成的貴族旅游團前往圣莫里茨旅游,與酒店老板約翰內斯·巴德魯特(Johannes Badrutt)立下了賭局。游客們圍坐在恩加丁庫爾姆酒店(Engadiner Kulm Hotel)的爐火旁,一想到馬上要返回濃霧彌漫的倫敦過冬就悶悶不樂。但瑞士的酒店老板卻從中發現了絕好的商機。

“You holiday here in summer,” he challenged them over a bottle of Veltliner red wine. “Why not enjoy the mountains year-round? Winter is so pleasant that on fine days you can even walk without a jacket.” Lured by the promise of blemish-free skies against a backdrop of lofty peaks, the Englishmen were pleased to accept the wager; up until then, St Moritz had been a modest hiking destination in July and August. But if Badrutt’s promise proved false, the hotelier would pay for their journey and winter-long stay. How could they lose?

"夏季你們來這里避暑,"老板一邊問著一邊喝了一口特麗娜紅酒。"為什么不在這里待上一整年,享受山脈風光呢?這里的冬季舒適宜人,天氣好的話,不穿外套就可以外出散步。"山峰高聳,碧空如洗……英國游客被老板的描述深深地打動了,興高采烈地同意與老板打賭。當時,七、八月的圣莫里茨只是一個不錯的遠足勝地。如果圣莫里茨的冬季并非所描述的那般美好,那巴德魯特就打賭失敗了,按照賭約需支付這些游客在冬季的旅行成本包括住宿費。英國游客怎么可能輸呢?

Come mid-December, the group of men returned to Switzerland. Towards the end of their week-long journey, sat on a horse-pulled sledge and wrapped head-to-toe in furs, they negotiated the 2,284m Julier Pass, a two-day Alpine crossing that first linked Chur in the Rhine valley with the Engadine valley in southeastern Switzerland. But by the time of their arrival in St Moritz, the skies had cleared, they were sweating profusely, and a beaming Badrutt, jacket-less and with his shirt sleeves rolled up, was there to greet them.

于是,這些游客在十二月中的時候如約返回瑞士。一周的旅行快要結束時,他們坐在馬拉的雪橇上,從頭到腳被皮毛包裹地嚴嚴實實,商量著穿越海拔2284米的尤利爾山口(Julier Pass),以萊茵河谷的庫爾(Chur)為出發點,穿越深邃的阿爾卑斯山谷,經過瑞士東南部的恩加丁山谷到達圣莫里茨,全程為期兩天。到達圣莫里茨之后,天空已放晴,游客熱得大汗淋漓,只見巴德魯特身穿T恤,卷著袖子,沒有穿外套,正笑容滿面地站在那兒迎接他們。

The genius of the wager, of course, was that when Badrutt won the bet (the Englishmen stayed on as paying guests until March) word quickly spread throughout their homeland about St Moritz’s distinctive ‘Champagne climate’ – dry and sunny with a high degree of snow certainty. Year-round tourism had arrived in the Alps, and the village of St Moritz seemed newborn.

當然,這個賭局的高明之處就在于巴德魯特打賭獲勝(英國游客在他的酒店一直待到第二年三月)。很快,圣莫里茨特有的"香檳氣候"便傳遍英國,干燥的空氣,閃耀的陽光,冰川融成云霧……阿爾卑斯成為全年出游的最佳目的地,圣莫里茨小鎮的發展如獲新生。

“Some people think it’s a legend, but it’s all true,” said Richard Leuenberger, general manager of the five-star Badrutt’s Palace, during my visit this past July. Opened by Johannes Badrutt’s son Caspar in 1896 to further reap the benefits of his father’s gamble, the hotel has become a byword for the resort town’s lavish excess. “Before the Badrutts there was little reason to come to St Moritz, or holiday in the Swiss mountains, in winter at all. There had long been the demand in summer, but winter? It was lunacy.”

"有人說這只是傳說,但這個故事千真萬確,"去年7月,我去圣莫里茨旅行時,五星級巴德魯特皇宮酒店(Badrutt's Palace)的總經理理查德·洛伊恩貝格爾(Richard Leuenberger)這么對我說。1896年,約翰內斯·巴德魯特的兒子卡斯帕(Caspar)為進一步利用父親賭局引發的效應,創立了巴德魯特皇宮酒店,成為圣莫里茨度假勝地的視覺焦點。"在巴德魯特打賭之前,幾乎沒有什么可以吸引游客冬季前往圣莫里茨或瑞士山區度假。夏季旅游需求旺盛,但是冬季?簡直是天方夜譚。" 紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live

That the Badrutts almost single-handedly marketed this untapped winter wonderland is a little spurious. The first tourist office in Switzerland had been established in the same year as the bet, and there are tales of an Anglican priest, one Reverend Alfred Strettell, who came to preach the gospel in St Moritz in 1861 before returning to England to advocate the resort’s potential as a winter destination in open letters to British newspapers. By this time, other resorts in the Swiss regional cantons of Graubünden and Bern were also flush with business, with clinics in Davos, Arosa, Leysin and Grindelwald developed as winter sanctuaries to cure patients with tuberculosis and respiratory diseases.

如果說巴德魯特一人打開了圣莫里茨冬季旅游的市場,這個說法不太準確。在巴德魯特打賭的同一年,瑞士成立了第一家旅游局。據說,著名的英國傳教士阿爾弗雷德·斯特雷特爾(Alfred Strettell)于1861年在圣莫里茨傳教,在返回英國之前,他就公開給英國報社寫信,宣傳圣莫里茨作為冬季旅游首選之地的潛力。那時,瑞士的格勞賓登州(Graubünden)和伯爾尼(Bern)已經有一些商業發展,達沃斯、阿羅薩、萊辛與格林德瓦的診所為肺結核與呼吸系統疾病的患者提供了冬季療養圣地。

But what Badrutt did was make the Swiss mountains accessible in a way that no one else had done before. In order to pay off the high cost of his ongoing investment at the Engadiner Kulm, he needed to keep the hotel open year-round, paving the way for a winter ice rink and regular curling tournaments played with stones first brought by early Scottish visitors. And by the 1880s, the number of English-speaking arrivals had increased to such an extent that a local newspaper – the Engadine Express & Alpine Post – was published entirely in English. Still, Badrutt’s role as pioneer cannot be downplayed.

無論如何,沒有巴德魯特,瑞士的山脈風光不可能如此輕易吸引到眾多游客。恩加丁庫爾姆酒店的投資持續增加,巴德魯特必須保證酒店全年開放才能維持高昂的運營成本,為冬季滑雪錦標賽和常規冰壺錦標賽創造了條件。冰壺比賽即冰上溜石,最早起源于蘇格蘭游客。十九世紀八十年代,英語游客的數量大增,地方報紙《恩加丁快報與阿爾卑斯郵報》的發行語言全部為英語。作為開拓先鋒,巴德魯特的作用任何時候都不容小覷。

“Before him there was only 75 beds in the village,” said Leuenberger, showing me around the Palace’s Great Hall, otherwise known as the ‘living room’ of St Moritz. “But because of Badrutt that number exploded to more than 2,000 over the next four decades.”

"在巴德魯特開店之前,圣莫里茨只有75張床位,"洛伊恩貝格爾邊說邊帶我參觀皇宮酒店的大廳,又被譽為圣莫里茨的"客廳"。"多虧了巴德魯特的影響,游客數量在后來40年中激增到兩千多人。"

To truly understand the town’s role in marketing mountains to the world, I set off to explore in the company of John Webster, a historian and guide who, having studied St Moritz for 27 years, knows the resort’s backstory best. 紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live

為了深入了解小鎮在向世界推廣山脈旅游業中發揮的重要作用,我特意前往約翰·韋伯斯特(John Webster)的公司拜訪。韋伯斯特是一位著名的歷史學家及導游,對圣莫里茨的研究長達27年,對這一旅游勝地背后的故事最為了解。

“The concept of the winter holiday was born here – and I’ve never come across any claims to counter the argument,” he said, while looking out to the pyramid-like peaks of the Muottas Muragl. “From the late 19th Century on, St Moritz’s evolution and sphere of influence was relentless. There is a list of firsts in St Moritz that no one else has.”

"寒假的概念從這里誕生——這一說法從沒有遭受過任何質疑,"他邊說邊目視著穆奧塔斯穆拉格(Muottas Muragl)金字塔形狀的山頂。"自十九世紀后期以來,圣莫里茨的影響力越來越大,影響范圍越來越廣。此外,圣莫里茨還擁有多項第一。"

Among those novelties was Switzerland’s first electric light and streetlight, both installed at the Engadiner Kulm in 1879. That same year, Badrutt brought flushing toilets into the Alps and built the first hydro-electric plant in the country.

圣莫里茨是瑞士第一個安裝電燈和路燈的城市,于1879年在恩加丁庫爾姆酒店安裝。同年,巴德魯特將沖水馬桶引進阿爾卑斯地區,并在該地建立了第一個水電站。

In tandem, winter sports found their place. Europe’s first curling tournament was held on frozen-over Lake St Moritz (now also the pitch and paddock for annual horse races, as well as ice polo and ice cricket tournaments). By 1882, the first European Ice-Skating Championships took place, then the first bobsleigh run and race were held in 1890. And all this was decades before downhill and slalom skiing became fashionable among the jet set.

隨后,冬季運動在這里發展。歐洲第一屆冰壺錦標賽在圣莫里茨湖的冰面上舉行(如今還為年度賽馬、冰上馬球和板球錦標賽提供比賽場地和圍場)。第一屆歐洲滑冰錦標賽于1882年舉辦,第一屆有舵雪橇比賽于1890年舉辦。幾十年之后,速降滑雪與障礙滑雪開始在上流社會盛行。

The story of St Moritz is, in some ways, also a tale of social transformation.

從另一方面來看,圣莫里茨的發展正是一部社會轉型史。

“The newly wealthy were able to mingle with the aristocracy for the first time,” said Webster, singling out the fairytale rooftops of eight five-star hotels (nine if you include Grace St Moritz, opening in summer 2018). “And in this period, these palace hotels served as great stages.”

"新富階層第一次有能力同貴族結交,"韋伯斯特說道,特意提到八家五星級酒店的童話式屋頂(包括格雷斯圣莫里茨酒店應為九家酒店,酒店將于2018年夏季正式營業)。"這一時期,這些皇宮酒店提供了重要交際場所。"

Evocations of the past include grainy photos of Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck tackling the notorious Cresta Run bobsleigh (fanatical rider Errol Flynn’s claim to fame was that he never once finished the course). Audrey Heburn would sit and have tea at Confiserie Hanselmann, a storied chocolate shop still doing a fine trade on Via Maistra.

好萊塢明星的老照片斑駁不清,總是讓人聯想到過去,比如格利高里·派克(Gregory Peck)身陷有舵雪橇克雷斯特朗滑雪丑聞(狂熱的雪橇乘員埃羅爾·弗林(Errol Flynn)之所以出名是因為他連一次滑道滑雪都沒能完成)。想象一下,奧黛麗·赫本(Audrey Heburn)在麥斯特拉街一家有名的巧克力商店恩曼果子屋悠然的品著下午茶。

But while the resort once reveled in Xanadu-like fantasy – outlandish stories of elephants and sea lions flown in for legendary parties at Badrutt’s Palace are all true – it remains equally bombastic in the face of fierce seasonal competition today. In particular, two recent game-changers include the Swiss resort town of Andermatt, plucked from obscurity by billionaire Egyptian property tycoon Samih Sawiris in 2013, and the Bürgenstock, a mega hotel and spa project nine years in the making that opened above Lake Lucerne this July.

圣莫里茨曾經沉浸于世外桃源的幻想之中——有關大象和海獅出現在巴德魯特皇宮酒店的怪誕故事,這些都是事實——但現在面臨激烈的季節性競爭。尤其是遇到兩大強勁的競爭對手,瑞士度假小鎮安德馬特(Andermatt)和布爾根施托克(Bürgenstock)。安德馬特在2013年因為埃及地產大亨及億萬富翁薩米·薩維雷斯(Samih Sawiris )投資的豪華酒店一舉成名,布爾根施托克則歷時九年打造了一個大型酒店和水療中心,于今年7月在琉森湖(Lake Lucerne)上開放。

But there is still something that neither resort – nor St Moritz’s traditional rivals Gstaad and Zermatt – has. The Engadine Valley’s so-called ‘Champagne climate’. After all, St Moritz’s proud slogan, ‘300 days of sunshine a year’, is not only a cold, hard truth, but an undoubted wink to the past. Johannes Badrutt may be gone, but his impact will not be forgotten.

盡管如此,這些度假勝地及圣莫里茨的傳統競爭對手格斯塔德(Gstaad)和采爾馬特(Zermatt)依然存在不足。那就是恩加丁山谷所特有的"香檳氣候"。圣莫里茨"全年300天的晴空"著實讓人引以為傲,這個鐵一般的事實也是對過去的真實回應。約翰內斯·巴德魯特雖已離去,但他的影響將永世長存。

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