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百慕大之最——兩秒鐘就能跨過的吊橋

The drawbridge you can cross in two seconds
百慕大之最——兩秒鐘就能跨過的吊橋

It takes an average of two seconds to cross Bermuda’s Somerset Bridge by car – sneeze and you might miss it.

坐車通過百慕大的薩默塞特橋(Somerset Bridge)平均耗時2秒,打個噴嚏,你可能就錯過了。

With an opening just 56cm wide, the world's smallest drawbridge is large enough to accommodate the mast of a sailboat. Yet the bridge, which links the southern tip of Somerset Island to Sandys Parish on the south-western shore of the main island, once saved Bermuda’s residents up to three hours in travel time.

薩默塞特橋是世界上最小的吊橋,僅56厘米寬,只夠一艘帆船穿過。不過,這座橋將薩默塞特島主島的南端和西南岸的桑茲區(Sandys Parish)連了起來,曾經為百慕大居民的出行節省三個小時的時間。

“For small Bermuda sloops, the shortest route to the open sea from the central and western parishes of Bermuda was via Somerset Bridge, rather than taking the long channel around the north and east coast of Bermuda,” said Dr Edward Harris, former director of the National Museum of Bermuda.

百慕大國家博物館的前館長哈里斯博士(Dr Edward Harris)說:"乘搭百慕大的小單桅帆船從百慕大的中西部地區到外海,從薩默塞特橋航行是最短的路線,不用繞過百慕大北部和東海岸的漫長水道。"

Today, 10 bridges connect eight islands and Bermuda’s mainland, but four centuries ago, the only way to get from one island to another was by boat. In 1620, The Bermuda General Assembly decided to construct the first three bridges, including Somerset Bridge, to allow residents to gather more easily. At that time, most people living in Bermuda relied on boats for fishing and general transport, but strong south-west winds made navigating Bermuda’s waters challenging. In the early 17th Century, a type of ship known as a sloop – equipped with high, raked masts and triangular sails – was developed to help islanders sail upwind. The sloop’s innovative design eventually evolved into the Bermuda rig, which was used by the British Navy in the 19th Century and for the America’s Cup in the 1930s. It remains a popular sailing vessel to this day.

今天,這里有10座橋將8座島嶼與百慕大主島連起來,但在4個世紀以前,從一座島到另一座島的唯一辦法就是坐船。1620年,百慕大大會(Bermuda General Assembly)決定建造首批三座橋梁以方便居民往來,其中就包括薩默塞特橋。當時,船對于生活在百慕大的大多數人來說,是用來捕魚和一般出行的工具,但猛烈的西南風使百慕大水域很難航行。在17世紀初,有人發明了一種裝備了高高的傾斜桅桿和三角帆的船,幫助島民逆風而行。這種船的創新設計最終演變成了百慕大帆,19世紀的英國海軍和1930年代的美洲杯帆船賽使用的都是這種帆。直至今日,仍然廣受歡迎。

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live

With towering palm trees and verdant ferns flanking its moss-covered stone walls, Somerset Bridge looks much as it did nearly 400 years ago, save for the four small yellow chains installed to prevent passers-by from falling into the water below. While it is called a drawbridge, Somerset Bridge did not open and close in the traditional way. Having the ability to raise and lower the two sides of the bridge would have required a more complex design, and the waterway was not wide enough for anything larger than a sloop to pass. Instead, builders left a 56cm gap across the centre of the bridge covered by a loose plank of wood.

除了為防止行人落水而裝上的四根小黃鏈,薩默塞特橋看起來還是400年前的樣子,棕櫚樹和翠綠的蕨類植物高聳在覆蓋著青苔的石墻兩側。雖然這座橋被稱為吊橋,但并不是以傳統方式開合。橋的兩邊若是可以升降的話,需要一個更為復雜的設計,而這里的水道不夠寬,僅夠一艘單桅帆船通過。于是,建橋者在橋中間留了一個56厘米的空隙,用一塊活木板蓋在上面。

As sloops approached the bridge, an overseer would raise the wooden plank from the bridge floor to allow the sail to pass through. The overseer would then assist the captain in navigating the sail through the narrow breach, and replace the plank once the sloop was safely past.

當帆船靠近這座橋時,守橋人就把木板從橋面拿起,方便過船。然后,守橋人會協助船長駕駛帆船穿過狹窄的缺口,待船安全過去后,再把木板蓋上。

Sailing remained the primary form of transportation in Bermuda until the mid-20th Century. But as automobile traffic grew and boat traffic waned, the Bermuda government decided to retire the drawbridge. “The bridge is operational, but it doesn't open because it's an important part of the main road that links the largest and most eastern parish – Sandys Parish to Southampton,” explained Larry Rogers, owner of Rogers Transfers & Island Tours.

20世紀中葉以前,百慕大的主要交通工具都是帆船。但隨著汽車流量增加,而船運流量減少,百慕大政府決定讓這座吊橋退休。"這座橋還是可以使用,但之所以不開放,是因為它是連接英格蘭最大的區域和最東邊區域,即桑茲區與南安普敦的主干道的重要組成部分,"羅杰斯島旅行社(Rogers Transfers & Island Tours)的老板羅杰斯解釋。

But the bridge remains treasured by residents and visitors alike. As one of Bermuda’s top tourist attractions, it was featured on a 2009 series of Bermudian banknotes, and in 2015, was officially designated a historical monument.

但這座橋仍然受到居民和游客的喜愛。作為百慕大最熱門的旅游景點之一,薩默塞特橋被印在了百慕大2009年版鈔票上,2015年被正式指定為歷史遺跡。

Despite its small size, Somerset Bridge does require some upkeep. “I just finished completing the woodwork on the bridge’s two walkways: the north and south entrances,” said Curtis Charles, a construction and maintenance engineer for the Bermuda Ministry of Public Works, who has been working on the bridge for more than 25 years. “The previous wood was 16 years old, and we needed to replace it as moisture got in between the planks and rotted. This time we made sure to treat the wood, so it will last longer, hopefully around 20 years.”

盡管薩默塞特橋很小,但保養工作也不能少。"我剛剛完成了這座橋兩個人行道的木工活:位于南北的兩個入口處,"百慕大公共工程部建筑和維護工程師查爾斯(Curtis Charles)說,他在這座橋上工作了25年。"以前的木材已經用了16年,木板之間受潮腐爛,都需要更換。這次我們一定要把木材處理好,確保更耐用,希望能用上20年左右。"

Charles and his team inspect the bridge once a month; they change the pads underneath the portion of the bridge that cars pass over, and check the wooden planks in the walkway and asphalt. He believes that Somerset Bridge is worth protecting.

查爾斯和他的團隊每月給橋做一次檢查;更換有汽車碾過的橋段下面的墊子,并檢查人行道木板和瀝青。他認為薩默塞特橋值得精心保護。

“It’s a point of pride,” he said.

"這正是薩默塞特橋令人自豪的關鍵所在,"他說。

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