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探秘摩洛哥小山村 時間在這里凝固

A journey to a Moroccan village frozen in time
探秘摩洛哥小山村 時間在這里凝固

Our vehicle wound ever higher up the earthen road cutting through Morocco’s High Atlas mountains. Below me, the red soil spilled like wine between green dots of forest and sheets of white snow. I lost myself in the dizzying beauty of North Africa’s tallest peaks, and as I nervously peered out of the window, I saw there was no guardrail separating us from the sharp ledge and distant valley below.

我們進入摩洛哥高阿特拉斯山脈(High Atlas mountains),汽車沿著蜿蜒的盤山土路攀升。在我下方,紅色的土壤像葡萄酒一樣潑灑在點點簇簇的綠色森林和一片片白雪上。北非最高峰的美景令我沉醉。我時不時緊張地望向窗外,發現我們就在沒有護欄的懸崖峭壁和深不見底的山谷之間行駛。

Our journey had started an hour earlier at the base of the mountain along an ancient caravan trail that connects Marrakech and the Sahara. Centuries ago, this trans-Saharan trade route had brought gold, ivory and cloth from places like Timbuktu, Sudan and Ghana to the North African coast. Today, the once-proud villages sprinkled along this winding road are little more than shantytowns, where weary travellers can buy grilled meat outside open shacks and cafes.

我們從山腳下一個基地出發,沿著連接馬拉喀什(Marrakech)和撒哈拉沙漠的古老商道,提早了一小時上路。幾個世紀以前,這條跨撒哈拉的貿易線路將廷巴克圖(Timbuktu),蘇丹和加納等地的黃金,象牙和布匹帶到北非海岸。今天,這條蜿蜒的道路沿線散落的那些曾經風光一時的村莊,幾乎都變成了棚戶區,疲憊的旅客們可以在那里的棚屋和咖啡館外買烤肉。

I had stopped at one of these villages, Taddert, that morning, clutching a faded copy of Berber Village: The Story of the Oxford University Expedition to the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Published in 1959 and written by expedition member Bryan Clarke, the book is an account of a remarkable 17-day expedition undertaken by five students in 1955 from Oxford to a remote village called Idihr. The youths travelled in an ex-army truck in hopes of studying the geography, wildlife and customs of this far-flung corner of the Arab world’s tallest mountain range.

這天早晨,我在其中一個叫塔德特(Taddert)的村子停車休息,攥著一本書頁翻黃的書《柏柏爾村:牛津大學探險隊遠征摩洛哥高阿特拉斯山脈的故事》(Berber Village:The Story of the Oxford University Expedition to the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco)。這本書出版于1959年,作者是探險隊成員布萊恩·克拉克(Bryan Clarke),記述了五名學生1955年歷時17天從英國牛津前往一個名為伊戴爾(Idihr)的摩洛哥偏僻村莊的非凡探險經歷。那些年輕人當年乘坐一輛退役的軍用卡車,進到位于阿拉伯世界偏遠一隅的最高山脈,研究那里的地理、野生動植物和風俗民情。

Their journey took place during times of civil unrest. Morocco had been a French protectorate since 1912, but following the exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953, violence had erupted and colonial authorities were ruthlessly cracking down on Moroccan nationalists. By the time the students crossed from England to San Sebastián, Spain, and prepared to venture through Gibraltar into Morocco in the summer of 1955, French occupation was on its last legs and the country's future was uncertain.

他們的旅行正值當地內亂時期。摩洛哥自1912年以來一直受法國庇護,但是蘇丹穆罕默德五世流亡后,爆發了反殖民主義的暴力抗議,殖民當局對摩洛哥民族主義者無情鎮壓。當這些牛津學生從英格蘭前往西班牙的圣塞巴斯蒂安,準備在1955年夏天冒險穿越直布羅陀海峽前往摩洛哥時,摩洛哥幾乎已全部在法國控制之下,前途未卜。

When the students arrived in North Africa, they sought help from Morocco’s ruler, T’hami el-Glaoui, to find a suitably remote village for their research and protection as they travelled. Before becoming the Pasha of Marrakesh in 1912, el-Glaoui had been dubbed the 'Lord of the Atlas’ and ruled over the caravan route cutting through the mountains in southern Morocco. His palace had been the fabled Kasbah in Telouet in central Morocco, and at the time of his death in 1956 he was one of the richest men in the world.

抵達北非后,為了尋找一個適合他們開展研究的偏僻村莊,并且在旅行期間獲得保護,探險隊學生向摩洛哥統治者泰米爾·格拉維(T'hami el-Glaoui)求助。格拉維1912年成為馬拉喀什的帕夏(古代阿拉伯的高級官銜)之前曾被稱為“阿特拉斯王”,一手控制著貫穿南摩洛哥山脈的商道。他的宮殿就是傳說中的摩洛哥中部堤路特卡斯壩城堡(Telouet Kasbah,又譯特魯埃城堡)。1956年去世的時候,他是世界上最富有的人之一。

After ferrying and driving to the High Atlas mountains from Oxford, the students spent the night at the el-Glaoui's kasbah. This was the end of the road, so a local sheikh arranged for a caravan of mules to carry their luggage while the students walked some 35km from Telouet to Idihr.

學生們從牛津出發,乘渡輪、駕車,輾轉抵達高阿特拉斯山,在格拉維城堡過夜。這已經是道路的盡頭。當地一位酋長安排了一個騾車隊幫他們駝行李,學生們自己從堤路特徒步35公里前往伊戴爾。

Like the students, I had come to Morocco for an adventure of my own. After living in the US for a decade, I travelled to the country in hopes of writing a novel. One day while rummaging through a library in Casablanca, I discovered a copy of Berber Village. As I read, I became enthralled by the trials and tribulations these five young adventurers faced – among them a Moroccan interpreter and an aspiring zoologist, ethnologist, geographer and botanist.

和那些學生一樣,我獨自來摩洛哥冒險。在美國生活了10年后,我到摩洛哥旅行,希望能寫一部小說。一天,我在卡薩布蘭卡一個圖書館發現了這本《柏柏爾村》。我被書中5位年輕的冒險家面臨的考驗和磨難吸引了,他們是摩洛哥語翻譯家、抱負遠大的動物學家、民族學家、地理學家和植物學家。

During their 17-day journey, according to the book, the students slept on a British official’s veranda, met legendary explorer Wilfred Thesiger and were nearly held captive by bandits in Marrakech. After eventually reaching Idihr, they camped for seven weeks as they researched. Their main funding came from Oxford University’s Exploration Club, which allowed them to buy the truck, and a £100 advance payment from National Geographic for a future article. 紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live

根據書中所述,在17天的旅途中,學生們曾在一位英國官員家的陽臺上睡覺,遇到過傳奇探險家塞西格(Wilfred Thesiger),幾乎被馬拉喀什的土匪綁架,最終抵達伊戴爾。他們在那里露營了7個星期開展研究。他們的主要資金來自牛津大學的探險俱樂部,他們用這筆錢買了卡車。《國家地理》雜志向他們預支了100英鎊的稿費。

In the weeks before setting off, the students had stockpiled huge numbers of ready-made meals, penicillin and toilet paper in their boarding rooms. Clarke was eventually waved off by the elderly landlady he was staying with, who gave him a sack of homemade sandwiches for his trip.

出發前幾個星期,學生們在宿舍里儲備了大量即食食品、青霉素和衛生紙。最后,克拉克(書的作者)和他的房東老太太揮手告別,她為他準備了一袋自制的三明治。

The students had chosen Idihr because of its remote location high in the folds of the Atlas mountain range. They wanted to find somewhere untouched by modernity to study the beliefs and agricultural practices of a remote Maghreb society. The students pitched their tents by a stream that flowed near a large walnut tree below the village.

學生們選擇伊戴爾是因為它位于非常偏遠的阿特拉斯山脈的高處。他們希望找到一個不受現代世界影響的地方研究偏遠的馬格里布社會的信仰和農業實踐。他們把露營帳篷搭在村子下面一條小溪旁,溪流附近有一顆核桃樹。

As the weeks passed, Clarke writes, a gradual friendship formed between the two disparate groups. The students invited the djellaba-robed villagers into their tents for tea, and the villagers hosted them in their simple brick houses, where they offered the university students slow-cooked tagines. The villagers soon revealed a communal belief in animism and genies and began to see the students, who shared their penicillin, as magic healers.

克拉克寫道,隨著時間的流逝,兩個不同的群體之間逐漸產生了友誼。學生們邀請這些穿吉拉伯(djellaba)長袍的村民來帳篷里喝茶,村民們也在他們簡單的土磚房里招待學生,給他們奉上慢煮塔吉鍋燉菜(Tagine)。這些村民很快顯現出他們共同的泛靈信仰和精靈崇拜,并把分享青霉素的學生視為魔法治療師。

The more I read of Clarke’s account, the more curious I became to find out what had happened to Idihr. Did it still exist? I looked on Google Maps and asked locals in Marrakech in Arabic, but no-one could find any trace of it. I even contacted Clarke’s widow and asked if any of the team had ever gone back. Clarke had not and she wasn’t sure about the others, or if they were still alive.

讀著克拉克的記述,我越發好奇伊戴爾究竟發生了什么。它還存在嗎?我查看谷歌地圖,并用阿拉伯語向馬拉喀什當地人詢問,但是沒有人能找到任何線索。我甚至聯系了克拉克的遺孀,詢問團隊中的其他人后來是否回到過這里。克拉克沒有回來過,但是她無法確定其他人是否回來過,也不知道他們是否還活著。

The tiny dot of a village seemed to have disappeared from modern maps, and the only evidence of its former location was a hand-sketched outline in Clarke's book, which placed it roughly 16km from the town of Zerkten and between the villages of Taddert and Telouet in the Al Haouz province. I wasn't sure if it had changed names or vanished altogether, but I was determined to find out if it still existed.

這個小村莊似乎已經從現代地圖上消失了;它所在位置的唯一證據就是克拉克書中手繪的草圖。書中的小村子位于豪茲省(Al Haouz)的塔德特(Taddert)和堤路特(Telouet)兩個村子之間,距離則庫騰鎮(Zerkten)大約16公里。我不確定它是改了名字還是徹底消失了,但我決定去查明它是否還存在。

Taddert appeared to be the closest village on modern maps to where Clarke had placed Idihr, so I drove three hours to the settlement from Marrakech with a driver who served as my interpreter to ask about Idihr's fate.

塔德特似乎是現代地圖上離克拉克標注的伊戴爾最近的村莊。我從馬拉喀什驅車3小時去到那個村落,一名司機給我當的翻譯,幫我詢問伊戴爾的命運。

A group of men gathered around us and stared at Clarke's book, as my driver and I repeated the village’s name. They studied the hand-sketched map and, finally, someone pointed to the mountains in the distance. Then, a kind-hearted car mechanic, Karim, who had been hovering nearby, came to my rescue. Idihr existed, and he was going to get me there.

I waited in a roadside cafe in Taddert with Clarke’s book open on the table while Karim made a call to a friend. Our impromptu expedition was to consist of myself, my driver, Karim and his friend, who had the biggest car around: a 4x4 capable of climbing up the mountains.

我在塔德特的一個路邊咖啡館里等著,桌上打開著克拉克的書,卡里姆打電話給他的朋友。我們臨時組成了探險隊,成員包括我自己、司機、卡里姆和他的朋友。這個朋友有這一帶最大的汽車:一輛四輪驅動能翻山越嶺的車。

紐約時報中英文網 www.gwbyzx.live

But an hour into our treacherous ascent, as we climbed higher and higher and the wheels of the car turned too close the mountain’s ledge, I couldn’t take it any longer. Too scared to continue, I begged the driver to stop, slammed the door shut and began marching back down the mountain in a trail of dust before the car turned around to pick me up.

但是,經過一個小時驚險的攀升后,我們爬的越來越高,車的輪子太靠近山的峭壁,我實在無法繼續忍受驚恐,便求司機停車,我下車后重重地關上車門,沿著一條灰土路往山下走。不一會會兒,汽車掉過頭來把我接上。

I was disappointed with myself, but I had discovered that Idihr existed. Now, I just needed to find a different way to get there. Karim, my driver and I drove back from Taddert towards Marrakech that evening. Karim assured me he would try to find a less dangerous route to the village and insisted I owed him nothing in return.

我對自己很失望,但是已經發現伊戴爾還存在。現在我只需要找到通向那里的另一條路。那天晚上我和司機、卡里姆一起從塔德特開車回了馬拉喀什。卡里姆向我保證他會找一條不那么危險的路,并堅持不會向我索要任何回報。

A few days later, I received a call from him. He had decided we would take the 4x4 but try a different road. As much as I would have liked to recreate the students' 35km trek from Telouet, it was too treacherous, so I put myself in Karim's hands to find another way there.

幾天后,我接到了他的電話。他決定我們仍可以乘他的四驅車,但可以嘗試走一條不同的路。盡管我本來希望重走當年學生們從堤路特出發時步行的35公里路線,但那條路太危險,所以我聽從了卡里姆,去找另一條通往那里的路。

We set off seven days later. As Karim, myself and our driver left Marrakesh behind and travelled along mountain roads, the old caravan route paved our way towards the snow-capped mountains. Women washed clothing in ditches, carpets blew in the wind at roadside stalls and donkeys trotted freely by half-built houses.

7天后,我們出發了。卡里姆、我和我們的司機離開馬拉喀什,沿著山路前行,棚車商道在我們眼前向白雪皚皚的山麓延展。婦女們在水渠里洗衣服,路邊小商鋪的毯子在風中飄揚,毛驢在尚未建成的棚屋周圍自由的徜徉。

After three hours, we turned off the caravan route and approached Taddert from the opposite side of the mountains as we had on our previous trip. Although Idihr was less than 20km away, the ride took several hours, as we clambered up switchbacks and crossed rivers at a snail's pace. We were alone on a dirt track as the peaks of the High Atlas rose and fell around us. Finally, the tiny village came into view: a cluster of simple brick homes nestled just up the bank from a mountain-fed stream.

3小時后,我們離開了商道,從山的另一側抵達塔德特。雖然那里離伊戴爾不到20公里,但是卻花了好幾個小時,因為我們走了盤山路,然后又用蝸牛般的速度過河。我們一路沒有遇到其他人,在高阿特拉斯山脈高低參差的群峰中穿行。終于,這個小村子進入了眼簾:一組簡陋的磚房匯聚在一條山澗的岸邊。

Karim greeted the locals in both Arabic and an Amazigh (also known as Berber) dialect. Djellaba-robed men emerged from their homes, and women in bright skirts and headscarves hid from me. It seemed they were not used to foreign visitors. I stumbled through gardens and past goats. A trail of children followed me to the stream below the village as I found the walnut tree Clarke described. The village was made up of short, sandy-coloured houses arranged around a square. A row of these brick homes was still perched on a ledge above the stream and looked identical to the students’ images from the book.

卡里姆用阿拉伯語和阿瑪齊格方言問候當地人。穿吉拉伯長袍的男人們從各自的家里冒了出來,傳著鮮艷的裙子、戴著鮮艷頭巾的女人們卻躲著我。看來她們還不習慣外國游客。我繞過花園和山羊群。一群孩子跟著我來到村子下面的溪流旁,我在那兒找到了克拉克書中描述的核桃樹。這個村子由圍繞著廣場依次排開的褐色矮房子組成。溪流上方的巖石層上還有一排這樣的磚房,和書中的圖片幾乎完全一樣。

The villagers brought out black-and-white photographs from a foreigner who had stopped here years earlier. I asked to photograph the women and they stared at the images on my iPad's screen in wonder; there were no mobile phones or cameras here. I showed them a copy of Berber Village and asked if anyone remembered the students, but no-one had ever seen the book before. A few residents recognised pictures of deceased villagers inside.

村民們拿出了早些年一個到此停留過的外國人拍攝的一些黑白照片。我要求拍攝這些村婦,她們驚奇地盯著我的iPad屏幕上的圖像 —— 那里沒有手機也沒有相機。我給她們看了《柏柏爾村》書里的照片,詢問有沒有人記得這些學生,但是沒有人見過這本書。一些村民在照片上認出了一些已故的人。

Nothing much seemed to have changed in Idihr from the book’s account, except that now a van sporadically drove villagers to Taddert. People worked the land, just as they had always done. They still feasted on slow-cooked meat and vegetable dishes in tagine pots. One was laid out for me that afternoon. There was one unplugged old TV in a communal space, and aside from a roof over their heads and clothes on their backs, the villagers didn't seem to have much. And according to Karim and the driver, they still bought goods from wandering taleb ‘magic men’ in hopes that they would bring them good fortune.

除了偶爾有一輛面包車把村民載到塔德特,伊戴爾和書中記載的一模一樣,幾乎沒有什么改變。人們在土地上耕作,就像從前一樣。他們吃的還是用塔吉鍋慢燉的肉和蔬菜。那天下午他們為我燉了一鍋。在公共場所有一臺不插電的舊電視機,除了頭上的屋頂和身上的衣服,村民們似乎也沒有太多財產。據卡里姆和司機說,村民們仍然從四處流浪的塔利布"魔法人"那里買東西,希望能給自己帶來好運。

I spent an afternoon in the village, leaving before dusk fell. Idihr was not en route to anywhere – it was so hard to reach and so small that unless you got lost looking for the now-crumbling Kasbah of Telouet, you’d never find it. But now that I had, I dreamed of one day returning to the village to camp, just as the students had done.

我在村子里逗留了一個下午,直到黃昏降臨才離開。伊戴爾不在通往任何地方的途中。它如此難以抵達,又如此的小,除非你在尋找搖搖欲墜的堤路特卡斯壩城堡時迷路了,否則永遠找不到它。但是,現在我來過了,還夢想著有一天能回到村里露營,就像學生們曾做過的那樣。

I didn’t have the funding of a university or a magazine, but I had proven that a traveller with a healthy dose of determination could still be an explorer in today’s world. I might not have been the first to discover Idihr, but thanks to the kindness of strangers, I felt as if I had rediscovered a tiny secret hidden from sight and frozen by the slow march of time in the mountains.

我沒有獲得某個大學或哪家雜志社的資助,但是我證明了,只要有足夠的決心,一個旅行者仍然可以成為當今世界的探險家。我可能不是第一個發現伊戴爾的人,但是多虧了陌生人的善意,我覺得自己仿佛重新發現了一個隱藏于現實之外、凝固在崇山峻嶺的緩慢時間中的小秘密。

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