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創傷后遺癥會傳給后代子孫嗎?

Can the legacy of trauma be passed down the generations?
創傷后遺癥會傳給后代子孫嗎?

In 1864, nearing the end of the US Civil War, conditions in the Confederate prisoner of war camps were at their worst. There was such overcrowding in some camps that the prisoners, Union Army soldiers from the north, each had the square footage of a grave. Prisoner death rates soared.

1864年,美國內戰已近尾聲,南方軍戰俘營的條件極其惡劣,有些地方人滿為患,以至于戰俘和北方軍士兵,每個人都有一塊一平方英尺的墓地,戰俘死亡率飆升。

For those who survived, the harrowing experiences marked many of them for life. They returned to society with impaired health, worse job prospects and shorter life expectancy. But the impact of these hardships did not stop with those who experienced it. It also had an effect on the prisoners’ children and grandchildren, which appeared to be passed down the male line of families.

對于幸存者來說,這些慘痛的經歷影響了他們當中許多人的一生。當他們重返社會時,身體垮了,工作比別人難找,去世得也早。但這些苦難造成的影響并沒有隨著親歷者的逝去而停止,那些戰俘的子孫也受到影響,而且似乎是傳男不傳女。

While their sons and grandsons had not suffered the hardships of the PoW camps – and if anything were well provided for through their childhoods – they suffered higher rates of mortality than the wider population. It appeared the PoWs had passed on some element of their trauma to their offspring.

雖然他們的子孫并沒有親歷戰俘營的苦難,但即便童年衣食無虞,死亡率還是比其他人高。戰俘似乎是把自己的一些創傷因素傳給了后代。

But unlike most inherited conditions, this was not caused by mutations to the genetic code itself. Instead, the researchers were investigating a much more obscure type of inheritance: how events in someone’s lifetime can change the way their DNA is expressed, and how that change can be passed on to the next generation.

但與大多數遺傳不同的是,這并非是由遺傳編碼本身的突變所引起。研究人員正在研究一種更隱秘的遺傳:人這一生中發生的事情如何改變了DNA的表達方式,以及這種改變是如何傳給下一代的。

This is the process of epigenetics, where the readability, or expression, of genes is modified without changing the DNA code itself. Tiny chemical tags are added to or removed from our DNA in response to changes in the environment in which we are living. These tags turn genes on or off, offering a way of adapting to changing conditions without inflicting a more permanent shift in our genomes.

這個過程名為表觀遺傳,即在DNA編碼本身不變的情況下,基因的可讀性或表達發生變化。當生活環境發生改變,我們的DNA會做出細微的化學反應。這些反應將基因打開或者關閉,提供了一種方法,能讓我們適應不斷變化的環境,而不會對基因組造成更為持久的改變。

But if these epigenetic changes acquired during life can indeed also be passed on to later generations, the implications would be huge. Your experiences during your lifetime – particularly traumatic ones – would have a very real impact on your family for generations to come. There are a growing number of studies that support the idea that the effects of trauma can reverberate down the generations through epigenetics.

如果人一生中所出現的表觀遺傳變化確實會遺傳給后代,那么其影響將是巨大的。你一生的經歷——尤其是創傷性經歷——將切實影響家里的若干代人。越來越多的研究都認為,創傷后遺癥可以通過表觀遺傳影響幾代人。

For the PoWs in the Confederate camps, these epigenetic changes were a result of the extreme overcrowding, poor sanitation and malnutrition. The men had to survive on small rations of corn, and many died from diarrhoea and scurvy.

對于南方戰俘營的俘虜來說,這些表觀遺傳變化是由人滿為患、衛生條件惡劣和營養不良造成的。他們的口糧只有一點點玉米,許多人死于腹瀉和壞血病。

“There is this period of intense starvation,” says study author Dora Costa, an economist at the University of California, Los Angeles. “The men were reduced to walking skeletons.”

“饑餓問題嚴重,”加州大學洛杉磯分校的經濟學家,也是該研究報告的作者科斯塔(Dora Costa)說。“人們餓得只剩皮包骨頭。”

Costa and her colleagues studied the health records of nearly 4,600 children whose fathers had been PoWs, comparing them to just over 15,300 children of veterans of the war who had not been captured.

科斯塔和同事們研究了近4,600名戰俘子女的健康記錄,并與15,300多名沒有被俘的退伍軍人后代進行了對比。

The sons of PoWs had an 11% higher mortality rate than the sons of non-PoW veterans. Other factors such as the father’s socioeconomic status and the son’s job and marital status couldn’t account for the higher mortality rate, the researchers found.

戰俘兒子的死亡率比非戰俘的兒子高出11%。研究人員發現,父親的社會經濟地位、兒子的工作和婚姻狀況等其他因素,并不能解釋死亡率為何會更高。

This excess mortality was mainly due to higher rates of cerebral haemorrhage. The sons of PoW veterans were also slightly more likely to die from cancer. But the daughters of former PoWs appeared to be immune to these effects.

高死亡率主要是因為腦溢血的比例較高。被俘軍人的兒子死于癌癥的概率也略高,但女兒似乎不受影響。

This unusual sex-linked pattern was one of the reasons that made Costa suspect that these health differences were caused by epigenetic changes. But first Costa and her team had to rule out that it was a genetic effect.

這種不尋常的性別關聯令科斯塔懷疑,表觀遺傳變化是導致這些健康差異的原因之一。但首先,她和研究團隊必須排除這是一種遺傳效應。

“What could have happened is that a genetic trait which enabled the father to survive the camp, a tendency toward obesity for example, was then bad during normal times,” says Costa. “However, if you look within families, there are only effects among sons born after but not before the war.”

科斯塔說:“有一種可能是,父親得以在戰俘營中存活的某種基因特征在正常年代是不好的,例如肥胖傾向。觀察他的家庭你會發現,只有戰后出生的兒子會受到影響,戰前的不會。”

If it were a genetic trait then children born before and after the war would be equally likely to show the reduced life expectancy. With a genetic cause ruled out, the most plausible explanation left was an epigenetic effect.

如果這是一種基因特征,那么戰前和戰后出生的孩子預期壽命都該縮短。排除掉基因原因,最可能的解釋就是表觀遺傳效應。

“The hypothesis is that there’s an epigenetic effect on the Y chromosome,” says Costa. This effect is consistent with studies in remote Swedish villages, where shortages in food supply had a generational effect down the male line, but not the female line.

“我們假設Y染色體存在一種表觀遺傳效應,”科斯塔說。這種效應與在瑞典一些偏遠村莊所做的研究一致,在那里,食物短缺對男性后代產生了影響,對女性后代則不然。

But what if this increased risk of death was due to a legacy of the father’s trauma that had nothing to do with DNA? What if traumatised fathers were more likely to abuse their children, leading to long-term health consequences, and sons bore the brunt of it more than daughters?

但如果死亡風險增加是父親創傷遺留的其他因素所致,與DNA無關呢?如果是因為父親受過創傷后更有可能虐待孩子,給孩子健康造成長期影響,而且兒子比女兒受的傷害更大呢?

Once again, comparing the health of children within families helped rule this out. Children born to men before they became PoWs didn’t have a spike in mortality. But the sons of the same men after their PoW camp experience did.

再來比比一家中孩子們的健康狀況,這種可能性就被排除了。男性被俘之前出生的孩子死亡率不會激增,但被俘之后出生的孩子死亡率卻大大增加。

“It’s a case of ruling out the other possible options,” says Costa. “A lot of it is proof by elimination and what is the most consistent explanation.”

“這是在排除其他可能性,”科斯塔說。“很多都是通過排除法來證明,剩下一個最合理的解釋。”

Many of the times when trauma is thought to have echoed down the generations via epigenetics in humans are linked to the darkest moments in history. Wars, famines and genocides are all thought to have left an epigenetic mark on the descendants of those who suffered them.

認為創傷會通過表觀遺傳代代相傳的年代,許多都是歷史上最黑暗的時期,戰爭、饑荒和種族滅絕都被認為在親歷者的后代身上留下了表觀遺傳的印記。

Some studies have proved more controversial than others. A 2015 study found that the children of the survivors of the Holocaust had epigenetic changes to a gene that was linked to their levels of cortisol, a hormone involved in the stress response.

有些研究頗具爭議。2015年的一項研究發現,在二戰猶太人大屠殺中幸存者的子女身上,一個與皮質醇水平有關的基因發生了表觀遺傳變化,皮質醇是一種應激反應激素。

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“The idea of a signal, an epigenetic finding that is in offspring of trauma survivors can mean a lot of things,” says Rachel Yehuda, director of the Traumatic Stress Studies Division at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and an author of the study. “It’s exciting that it’s there.”

“有種觀點認為,在創傷幸存者后代身上有某種信號,能發現某種表觀遺傳,這一觀點意義重大,”西奈山醫學院創傷壓力研究部主任,也是該項研究作者之一的耶胡達(Rachel Yehuda)說。“這很令人興奮。”

The study was small, assessing just 32 Holocaust survivors and a total of 22 of their children, with a small control group. Researchers have criticised the conclusions of the study. Without looking at several generations and searching more widely in the genome, we can’t be sure it is really epigenetic inheritance.

這項研究的規模很小,只有32名大屠殺幸存者及他們的22名子女,實驗的對照組也很小。研究人員對這項研究的結論提出了批評。如果沒有對若干代人的觀察,沒有在基因組中進行更廣泛的研究,就不能確定這是不是表觀遺傳。

Yehuda acknowledges that the paper was blown out of proportion in some reports, and larger studies assessing several generations would be needed draw firm conclusions.

耶胡達承認,這篇論文在一些報告中被夸大了,要想得出確定的結論,需要對數代人進行更大規模的評估。

“It was one single small study, a cross-section of adults many, many years after parental trauma. The fact we got a hint was big news,” says Yehuda. “Now the question is, how do you put meat on the bones? How do you really understand the mechanism of what is happening?”

她說:“這是一項單獨的小規模研究,只選取了一部分父母在很多年前受過創傷的成年人。我們得到的啟示是個大新聞,現在的問題是,如何解釋這個問題?如何真正理解背后的原理?”

Controlled experiments in mice have allowed researchers to hone in on this question. A 2013 study found that there was an intergenerational effect of trauma associated with scent. The researchers blew acetophenone – which has the scent of cherry blossom – through the cages of adult male mice, zapping their foot with an electric current at the same time. Over several repetitions, the mice associated the smell of cherry blossom with pain.

通過在小鼠身上進行對照實驗,研究人員能夠深入研究這個問題。2013年的一項研究發現,與氣味有關的創傷存在代際影響。研究人員對成年雄鼠的籠子吹有櫻花氣味的乙酰苯,同時電擊雄鼠的腳。 數次過后,雄鼠將櫻花的氣味與疼痛聯系在了一起。

Shortly afterwards, these males bred with female mice. When their pups smelled the scent of cherry blossom, they became more jumpy and nervous than pups whose fathers hadn’t been conditioned to fear it. To rule out that the pups were somehow learning about the smell from their parents, they were raised by unrelated mice who had never smelt cherry blossom.

不久,這些雄鼠與雌鼠交配。它們生下的幼鼠聞到櫻花味時,會比那些父親沒有對櫻花味培養出恐懼感的幼鼠更加神經質、更加緊張。為了排除幼鼠會從父母那里知道這種氣味的可能性,它們是由從未聞過櫻花氣味、毫不相關的小鼠撫養長大的。

The grandpups of the traumatised males also showed heightened sensitivity to the scent. Neither of the generations showed a greater sensitivity to smells other than cherry blossom, indicating that the inheritance was specific to that scent.

受創傷雄鼠的孫輩也對櫻花味特別敏感。這兩代小鼠都沒有對其他氣味表現出更強的敏感度,表明遺傳只針對櫻花味。

This sensitivity to cherry blossom scent was linked back to epigenetic modifications in their sperm DNA. Chemical markers on their DNA were found on a gene encoding a smell receptor, expressed in the olfactory bulb between the nose and the brain, which is involved in sensing the cherry blossom scent. When the team dissected the pups’ brains they also found there was a greater number of the neurons that detect the cherry blossom scent, compared with control mice.

這種對櫻花氣味的敏感度與雄鼠精子DNA中的表觀遺傳改變有關。研究發現,幼鼠DNA中的一個基因發生了化學變化,這個基因可以接收氣味,基因表達于鼻子和大腦之間能夠感知櫻花味的嗅球中。研究小組將幼鼠的大腦解剖后發現,與對照組相比,它們探測櫻花氣味的神經元數量更多。

The second and third generation appeared to have not a fear of the scent itself, but a heightened sensitivity to it. The finding brings to light an often-missed subtlety of epigenetic inheritance – that the next generation doesn’t always show exactly the same trait that their parents developed. It is not that fear is being passed down the generations – it is that fear of a scent in one generation leads to sensitivity to the same scent in the next.

雄鼠的子輩和孫輩似乎并不害怕氣味本身,只是對它更為敏感。這一發現揭示出表觀遺傳經常被忽略的一個細節:子女并不總是表現出與父母完全相同的特征。代代相傳的并非恐懼,一代人對某種氣味的恐懼會導致下一代對這種氣味敏感。

“So this is not ‘apples for apples’,” says Brian Dias, author of the study and a researcher at Emory University and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in the US. Even the term “inheritance” should be qualified here, he adds. “The word inheritance suggests it has to be a faithful representation of a trait that’s passed down.”

“所以兩者并不相同,”該研究的作者,也是美國埃默里大學和美國耶基斯國家靈長類動物研究中心的研究員迪亞斯(Brian Dias)如是說。他還表示,“遺傳”一詞在這里也值得推敲,“遺傳意味著將沿襲的特質原原本本地表現出來。”

The consequences of passing down the effects of trauma are huge, even if they are subtly altered between generations. It would change the way we view how our lives in the context of our parents’ experience, influencing our physiology and even our mental health.

哪怕創傷的影響在代際間發生了微妙的變化,傳遞它的影響也十分重大。父母的經歷會改變我們對生活的看法,影響我們的生理甚至心理健康。

And knowing that the consequences of our own actions and experiences now could affect the lives of our children – even long before they might be conceived – could put a very different spin on how we choose to live.

我們自己的行為和經歷可能會影響子女的生活——甚至是懷上他們之前很久的行為經歷,知道這一點,可能會大大改變我們選擇如何生活。

Despite picking up these echoes of trauma down the generations, there is a big stumbling block with research into epigenetic inheritance: no one is sure how it happens. Some scientists think that it is actually a very rare event.

盡管已經發現創傷會波及幾代人,但表觀遺傳的研究還存在一個巨大障礙:沒人知道它是如何發生的。一些科學家認為,表觀遺傳其實非常罕見。

One of the reasons that it may not be widespread is that the vast majority of one type of epigenetic mark on the DNA – the addition of a clump of chemicals known as methylation – is wiped clean at the very start of life and the process of adding these chemical groups to the DNA begins almost from scratch.<紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live/>

不常見的原因之一在于,DNA中有一種表觀遺傳印記,其絕大部分在生命形成之初就被清除得一干二凈,這指的是在DNA中添加一團名為甲基化的化學物質,將它們添加到DNA的過程幾乎是從零開始。

“As soon as the sperm enters the egg in a mammal, there’s a rapid loss of DNA methylation from the paternal set of chromosomes,” says Anne Ferguson-Smith, a researcher studying epigenetics at the University of Cambridge.  “That’s the reason why transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is such a surprise.

“一旦哺乳動物的精子進入卵細胞,父親染色體中DNA的甲基化就會迅速消失,”劍橋大學表觀遺傳學的研究者弗格森-史密斯(Anne Ferguson-Smith)說。“所以出現跨代的表觀遺傳很令人意外。”

“It’s very hard to imagine how you could have epigenetic inheritance when there’s a process of removal of all the epigenetic marks and putting on new ones in the next generation.”

“如果所有的表觀遺傳印記都會被清除,由下一代重新添加,很難想象為何還會出現表觀遺傳。”

There are, however, parts of the genome that are not wiped clean. A process called genomic imprinting protects the methylation at specific points of the genome. But these sites are not the ones where the epigenetic changes relevant to trauma are found.

然而,基因組的某些部分并沒有被完全抹去。一個名為基因組印跡的過程保護了基因組某些部位的甲基化。但與跟創傷有關的表觀遺傳所發生變化的地方并不一致。

A recent study by Ferguson-Smith’s group suggests epigenetic inheritance is probably very rare in mice.

弗格森-史密斯團隊最近的一項研究表明,表觀遺傳在小鼠中可能非常罕見。

But other researchers are convinced that they have found the hallmarks of epigenetic inheritance for several traits – in humans as well as animals. What’s more, they think they’ve found a mechanism for how it works. This time it could be molecules similar to DNA – known as RNA – that are altering how genes function.

但其他研究人員相信,他們已經發現了若干特性的表觀遺傳特征,有人類的也有動物身上的。此外,他們還自認發現了表觀遺傳的運作機制,認為可能是由于一種類似DNA的分子改變了基因的運作方式,這種分子名為RNA。

A recent paper has revealed strong evidence that RNA may play a role in how the effects of trauma can be inherited. Researchers examined how trauma early in life could be passed on by taking mouse pups away from their mothers right after birth.

最近一篇論文拿出了強有力的證據,表明在創傷如何影響遺傳的方面,RNA可能發揮了作用。研究人員在幼鼠出生后立即將它們從母親身邊帶走,借此觀察早前受到的創傷是如何傳遞的。

“Our model is quite unique,” says Isabelle Mansuy of the University of Zürich and ETH Zürich, who led the research. “It’s to mimic dislocated families, or the abuse, neglect and emotional damage that you sometimes see in people.”

這項研究的帶頭人芒敘(Isabelle Mansuy)同時在蘇黎世大學和蘇黎世聯邦理工學院任職,她說:“我們的模式非常獨特,有些人會與家人分離,或是被虐待忽視,情感受到傷害,我們模擬了這些情況。”

The symptoms these pups showed as they grew up also mimicked the symptoms seen in children who have experienced early trauma. The mice showed signs of increased risk-taking and higher calorie intake, both seen in child trauma survivors. When the males grew up, they had pups that showed similar traits – overeating, risk taking and higher levels of antisocial behaviour.

這些幼鼠在成長過程中表現出的癥狀,跟早年受過創傷的兒童癥狀相類似。這些小鼠更容易冒險,會攝入更多熱量,這在從創傷中幸存的兒童身上都能看到。當雄鼠成年后,它們的幼鼠也表現出類似特征——暴飲暴食、愛冒險以及更高程度的反社會行為。

The researchers extracted RNA molecules from the sperm of male mice who had been traumatised and injected these molecules into early the embryos of mice whose parents had not experienced this early-life trauma. The resulting pups, however, showed the typical altered behavioural patterns of a pup whose parents experienced trauma.

研究人員從受過創傷的雄鼠精子中提取出RNA分子,注射到父母早年沒有經歷過這種創傷的小鼠的早期胚胎中。這些幼鼠的行為模式也發生了特定改變,與父母經歷過創傷的幼鼠變化一致。

They also found that different lengths of RNA molecules were linked to different behavioural patterns: longer RNAs corresponded to greater food intake, changed the body’s response to insulin and greater risk-taking. Smaller RNA molecules were linked to showing signs of despair.

他們還發現,不同長度的RNA分子與不同的行為模式相關:RNA較長則食物攝入量更大,改變了身體對胰島素的反應,并且更愛冒險。RNA分子較小的則會表現出絕望。

“It’s the first time we’ve seen this link in a causal way,” says Mansuy.

“這是我們第一次看到這種聯系的因果關系,”芒敘說。

How these RNA molecules alter the behaviour of multiple generations is not yet known. Mansuy is now running experiments in humans to see if similar processes are at work in humans. Initial experiments by other researchers have shown that this does seem to be the case in men.

這些RNA分子是如何改變了幾代人的行為目前尚不清楚。芒敘正在人類身上試驗,看看類似情況是否也會出現。其他研究者的初步試驗表明,男性似乎確實如此。

This research – as well as many of the mice studies – focus on sperm and epigenetic inheritance down the male line. This isn’t because scientists think it only happens in males. It’s just a lot harder to study eggs than it is to study sperm.

這項研究,以及許多在小鼠身上進行的研究都將重心放在精子和雄性后代的表觀遺傳上。并不是因為科學家認為這種情況只發生在男性身上,而是因為研究卵子要比研究精子困難得多。

But efforts to decipher epigenetic inheritance down the female line is the next step.

但接下來的工作,就是破譯雌性后代的表觀遺傳。

“We had to start from somewhere,” says Mansuy. “But we are looking to have a model of trauma that shows how inheritance occurs via both females and males.”

“我們得先從一個地方開始研究,”芒敘說。“但我們希望建立一個創傷模型,將遺傳在女性和男性身上的發生機制都能解釋清楚。”

There are other known kinds of epigenetic mechanisms that are relatively little studied. One of them is called histone modification, where the proteins that act as a scaffold for DNA are chemically tagged. Now research is starting to suggest that histones could also be involved in epigenetic inheritance through the generations in mammals.

還有一些已知的表觀遺傳機制,但相對而言研究得不多。其中一個是組蛋白修飾,即作為DNA支架的蛋白質被做了化學標記。研究漸漸表明,組蛋白也可能參與了哺乳動物代際間的表觀遺傳。

“I suspect the answer is that all of these mechanisms could interact to give us the phenomenon that is intergenerational inheritance of acquired traits,” says Dias.

“我認為可能所有機制都在相互作用,共同形成了后天特征的代際遺傳現象,”迪亞斯說。

The science of epigenetic inheritance of the effects of trauma is young, which means it is still generating heated debate. For Yehuda, who did pioneering work on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the 1990s, this comes with a sense of déjà vu.

受創傷影響的表觀遺傳科學還很年輕,意味著仍在引發激烈的討論。耶胡達對這種感覺似曾相識——上世紀90年代,她在創傷后應激障礙(Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,簡稱PTSD)方面進行了開創性的研究。

“Where we are with epigenetics today feels like how it was when we first started doing research into PTSD,” she says.  “It was a controversial diagnosis. Not everyone believed there could be long term effect of trauma.”

“我們現在對表觀遺傳學的研究,感覺就像當年剛開始研究PTSD時一樣,”她說。“這是一個有爭議的結論,并不是每個人都認為創傷會造成長期影響。”

Nearly 30 years later, PTSD is a medically accepted condition that explains why the legacy of trauma can span decades in a person’s lifetime.

近30年后,PTSD成了被醫學承認的疾病,它解釋了為什么創傷后遺癥會伴隨人幾十年。

But if trauma is shown to be passed down the generations in humans in the same way as it appears to be in mice, we shouldn’t feel a sense of inevitability about this inheritance, says Dias.

但是迪亞斯說,就算研究表明創傷會像在小鼠身上一樣在人的身上代代相傳,我們也無需認為創傷遺傳就是不可避免的。

Using his cherry blossom experiments in mice, he tested what would happen if males that feared the scent were later desensitised to the smell. The mice were repeatedly exposed to the scent without receiving a foot shock.

還是這個在小鼠身上做的櫻花實驗,迪亞斯測試了如果害怕櫻花味的雄鼠后來對氣味脫敏會怎樣。實驗反復讓小鼠聞到櫻花味,但不再電擊腳部。

“The mouse hasn’t forgotten, but a new association is being formed now this odour is no longer paired with the foot shock,” says Dias.

“小鼠并沒有忘記,但正在形成新的聯系,櫻花味不再意味著腳被電擊,”迪亞斯說。

When he looked at their sperm, they had lost their characteristic “fearful” epigenetic signature after the desensitisation process. The pups of these mice also no longer showed the heightened sensitivity to the scent. So, it if a mouse “unlearns” the association of a scent and pain, then the next generation may escape the effects.

迪亞斯觀察小鼠的精子,發現脫敏過程后,精子不再有那種“感到害怕”的表觀遺傳特征。它們的幼鼠也不再表現出對櫻花味的高度敏感。因此,如果一只小鼠“忘掉”某種氣味和疼痛之間的聯系,下一代可能就不再會受此影響。

It also suggests that if humans inherit trauma in similar ways, the effect on our DNA could be undone using techniques like cognitive behavioural therapy.

實驗還表明,如果人類以類似的方式繼承了創傷,DNA受到的影響可以通過認知行為療法等手段來消除。

“There’s a malleability to the system,” says Dias. “The die is not cast. For the most part, we are not messed up as a human race, even though trauma abounds in our environment.”

“這個系統具有可塑性,”迪亞斯說。“并非不可改變。盡管我們周圍創傷四伏,但人類在大多數情況下并沒有被搞得一團糟。”

At least in some cases, Dias says, healing the effects of trauma in our lifetimes can put a stop to it echoing further down the generations.

迪亞斯說,至少在某些情況下,治愈我們的創傷可以阻止它去影響后幾代人。

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