快捷搜索: 紐約時報  抗疫  經濟學人  武漢  疫情  香港 

想擁有第二國護照?去買房吧

Want a Second Passport? Try Buying a House
想擁有第二國護照?去買房吧

When Natalia Yavorska and her husband first considered buying a holiday retreat somewhere warmer than their Ukrainian homeland, they were drawn to the Canary Islands.

娜塔莉亞·亞沃斯卡(Natalia Yavorska)和她的丈夫開始考慮在比他們的家鄉烏克蘭更溫暖的地方購買一處度假別墅時,加納利群島吸引了他們的注意。

A vacation to the Spanish archipelago in 2012 left them eyeing land on the southwest coast of the island of Tenerife, and while the initial attractions were the golf courses and ocean views, the deal was sealed by a special extra that came with their purchase.

2012年一次前往這片屬于西班牙的群島的旅行,讓他們看上了特內里費島西南海岸的一塊地,起初吸引他們的是高爾夫球場和海景,但最終讓他們簽下合約的,是這筆購買帶來的額外好處。

“The fact that we could get a Spanish residence visa from buying real estate was very important, and that made it an easy decision,” said Ms. Yavorska, a 60-year-old former banker from a town near Kiev.

“我們可以通過購買房地產獲得西班牙居留簽證這點非常重要,讓購買的決定容易了,”60歲的亞沃斯卡說,她曾是一名銀行家,來自基輔附近的一個小鎮。

That “golden visa” carried the right to eventually apply for a Spanish, and therefore European Union, passport, the kind of bonus that is luring a growing number of investors to high-end real estate.

這個“黃金簽證”帶來的權利是最終可以申請西班牙護照,也就是歐盟護照。這種額外好處正在吸引越來越多的投資者進入高端房地產市場。

Once seen as a slightly shady practice, the business of dangling visas and citizenship in front of wealthy investors has become a more common, and in some cases hugely successful, marketing strategy.

用簽證和公民身份誘惑富裕投資者曾被視為是有點可疑的做法,但如今已成為一種更為常見的、而且在某些情況下非常成功的營銷策略。

Ms. Yavorska and her husband, Alexander Yavorski, who own a pharmaceutical import business in Ukraine, were worried about political stability at home and saw the right to live in the European Union as “a type of insurance.”

亞沃斯卡的丈夫亞歷山大·亞沃斯基(Alexander Yavorski)在烏克蘭擁有一家藥品進口企業,這對夫婦擔心國內的政治穩定性,因此把獲得在歐盟生活的權利視為“一種保險”。

“Something can always happen between Russia and Ukraine, so if you have the chance to have a visa or a second passport sitting in your drawer, you would be stupid not to take it,” she said.

“總有事情在俄羅斯和烏克蘭之間發生,所以如果你有機會把一份簽證或第二本護照放在你的抽屜里,你不去拿就太愚蠢了,”亞沃斯卡說。

So far, at least 14 countries have programs that offer visas or passports to foreigners who buy real estate, according to research by Henley & Partners, a British-based law firm that specializes in helping people looking such programs, and The New York Times. Montenegro will soon become the 15th, and the British overseas territory of Anguilla is planning to follow suit.

根據一家專門幫助客戶調研此類項目的英國律所恒理環球顧問事務所有限公司(Henley & Partners)和《紐約時報》的調查,目前至少14個國家有為購買房產的外國人提供簽證或護照的項目。黑山很快將成為第15個國家,英國的海外領土安圭拉也計劃效仿。

Many more countries, including the United States and 20 of the 28 European Union members, are offering residence visas, which can often lead to passports, to foreigners willing to invest in nonproperty business ventures. These countries believe the investments will bolster their economies.

包括美國和歐盟28個成員國中的20個在內的更多國家,正在向愿意投資非房地產業務的外國人提供居留簽證,這往往可以讓他們最終獲得護照。這些國家認為這些投資將促進國內經濟。

Other countries, led by small Caribbean island nations and Vanuatu, in the South Pacific, are happy to simply sell a passport for as little as $100,000.

以加勒比海的小島國、以及南太平洋的瓦努阿圖為首的其他國家,則樂意以最低10萬美元的價格出售本國的護照。

Analysts say that offers of passports and residency have become a big business, attracting an estimated $20 billion a year in investment.

分析人士說,提供護照和居留權已成為一門大生意,每年估計吸引200億美元的投資。

That approach is transforming the upper end of real estate markets and reshaping the finances of some of the smaller countries, pumping billions of dollars into economies that are desperate for the funds.

這種做法正在改變高端房地產市場,并在重塑一些比較小的國家的財政,向非常需要這些資金的經濟體注入數十億美元。

At the same time, the practice is raising fears in the European Parliament and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which works to promote economic growth worldwide. They worry that the programs could assist money laundering, tax evasion and the free movement of criminals and terrorists, as well as allow wealthy Russians, Iranians and Syrians to skirt economic sanctions.

與此同時,這種做法引起了歐洲議會和經濟合作與發展組織(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)的擔憂,后者致力于促進全球經濟增長。他們擔心這些項目可能有助于洗錢、逃稅以及犯罪分子和恐怖分子的自由流動,還可讓富裕的俄羅斯人、伊朗人和敘利亞人逃避經濟制裁。

There are eight countries — five small Caribbean states, Turkey and, in the European Union, Cyprus and Malta — that will hand over passports to property buyers, who are generally required to spend little, if any, time within their borders.

有八個國家只要求購買房地產者在其境內居住很少的時間(如果有要求的話),就會向他們提供護照。這些國家包括五個加勒比島國、土耳其,以及兩個歐盟成員國:塞浦路斯和馬耳他。

In December, Brazil joined Dubai, which is part of the United Arab Emirates, and six European nations — Cyprus, Greece, Latvia, Malta, Portugal and Spain — in extending residence visas to property buyers.

去年12月,巴西加入了迪拜(組成阿聯酋的七個酋長國之一)和六個歐盟國家——塞浦路斯、希臘、拉脫維亞、馬耳他、葡萄牙和西班牙——的行列,將居留簽證的發放范圍擴大到房地產購買者。

The rules vary for converting those visas into passports.

各國對將居留簽證轉換為護照有不同的規定。

Portugal requires a waiting period of five years, during which the applicant needs to spend just one week a year in the country. Spain and Latvia insist on a 10-year wait. The Latvians and Greeks require difficult language tests and several years of actually living in the country, and the Latvians insist that applicants learn the national anthem. Dubai almost never grants United Arab Emirates citizenship to foreigners.

葡萄牙需要等待五年,在此期間申請人只需要每年在該國度過一周。西班牙和拉脫維亞堅持要求10年的等待期。拉脫維亞和希臘要求申請者通過困難的語言考試,并需要在該國實際生活數年。拉脫維亞還堅持要求申請者學會唱國歌。迪拜則幾乎從不給予外國人阿聯酋的公民身份。

The picky passport shopper needs to consider price, each country’s tax system and the speed of its bureaucracy: Dominica is the fastest to hand over a passport, and Turkey the slowest among nations that go straight to a passport.

挑剔的護照購買者需要考慮價格、每個國家的稅收制度,及其官僚機構的效率:多米尼加發放護照的速度最快,土耳其在直接授予護照的國家中速度最慢。

Passport shoppers also need to consider how much time a nation requires them to spend within its borders, and how many other countries will grant them visa-free access with their new passports. Grenada, for instance, offers passports that have visa-free access to both China and Russia.

護照購買者還需要考慮的因素包括,授予國要求他們在該國境內待多長時間,以及有多少其他國家會允許他們持新護照免簽證入境。例如,持格林納達護照可以免簽證進入中國和俄羅斯。

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live/

Wealthy Chinese are by far the biggest buyers of both visas and passports, followed by Russians, experts say. There is also growing interest among French citizens eager to avoid high income taxes and Britons desperate to maintain their European Union membership when or if their country leaves the bloc.

專家說,富裕的中國人是居留簽證和護照的最大買主,其次是俄羅斯人。由于渴望避免繳納高所得稅,購買護照的興趣在法國公民中有所上升。迫切希望在英國脫歐后(如果英國最終離開歐盟的話)保持自己歐盟護照的英國人購買護照的興趣也在增加。

“I think there will be a huge amount of activity once we know what is actually happening with Brexit,” said Penny Mosgrove, the chief executive of the upmarket real estate agency Quintessentially Estates.

高端房地產代理商Quintessentially Estates首席執行官佩妮·莫斯格羅夫(Penny Mosgrove)說,“我認為,一旦我們知道在脫歐上要實際發生什么時,將會有大量的(購買)活動。”

Americans are interested, too. In the five years to April 2018, 4,327 United States citizens received golden visas in Spain alone. Experts say there are two reasons for Americans’ appetite for new passports and residency visas.

美國人也有興趣。在截至2018年4月的五年間,單是在西班牙拿到“黃金簽證”的美國公民就有4327名。專家說,美國人想得到他國護照和居留簽證有兩個原因。

One is that the United States and Eritrea are the only countries that tax the worldwide earnings of their citizens even if they live abroad.

一個原因是,美國和厄立特里亞是僅有的兩個對其公民在全球范圍內的收入征稅的國家,即使公民生活在國外。

Alex Marino, who heads one of the largest expatriation legal practices in the world for Moodys Gartner Tax Law, said that in the final quarter of 2016, when Donald J. Trump was elected president, there was a record spike in the number of Americans renouncing their United States citizenship. But the biggest driving force by far, he said, “is finances and taxes, rather than politics.”

滿德稅務律師事務所(Moodys Gartner Tax Law)辦理的放棄美國國籍業務的數量在全球領先,領導該業務的亞歷克斯·馬里諾(Alex Marino)說,在唐納德·J·特朗普當選總統的2016年的最后一個季度里,放棄美國國籍的美國人數量出現了創紀錄的猛增。但他說,比其他理由大得多的動力“是財務和稅收,而不是政治”。

Peter Vincent, a former senior prosecutor in the Obama administration who now oversees security liaison for Henley & Partners, the law firm, said another factor was personal security.

奧巴馬政府的前高級檢察官彼得·文森特(Peter Vincent)如今在律師事務所Henley&Partners擔任安全聯絡人,他表示另一個因素是個人安全。

“There are some places in the world where if your taxi or bus gets pulled up and you are carrying a U.S. passport, that is a death warrant,” he said, “so people prefer to have a second passport for safety reasons.”

“在世界上某些地方,如果你乘坐的出租車或公共汽車被攔下來,而你持有美國護照,那就是一張死刑判決書,”他說,“所以出于安全原因,人們希望有第二國的護照。”

Knight Frank, a British real estate consulting firm that operates globally, estimated late last year that 36 percent of people with more than $30 million in net assets had second passports, up from 34 percent a year earlier.

在全球經營業務的英國房地產咨詢公司Knight Frank去年年底估計,擁有超過3000萬美元凈資產的人中,有36%擁有第二國的護照,一年前,這個數字是34%。

Christian H. Kälin, the Swiss-born lawyer who leads the British-based Henley & Partners, said the trend was also growing among the less wealthy.

總部設在英國的律師事務所恒理的領導人克里斯蒂安·H·卡林(Christian H. Kälin)是一名在瑞士出生的律師,他說,這一趨勢在不那么富裕的階層中也有所增長。

For those seeking residency visas or passports, the firm charges fees that start at about 20,000 euros, or $22,500, and can reach €500,000 for complicated programs like that of Austria, which requires nonproperty investments of at least €10 million. The firm has grown rapidly over the past decade, expanding to 30 offices around the world.

這家事務所對那些尋求居留簽證或護照的人收取的費用起價約2萬歐元(約合15.6萬元人民幣),對于像奧地利那樣的復雜項目,收費可高達50萬歐元,奧地利要求至少1000萬歐元的非房地產投資。這家事務所在過去十年里發展迅速,在世界各地擴展設立了30個辦事處。

Charlie Smith, European adviser at the New York company Concierge Auctions, which specializes in properties valued at more than $2 million, said the lure of a visa is an important marketing tool. Mr. Smith used a recent tour of China and Singapore to drum up interest in the auction of the nine-bedroom Villa San Lorenzo in Quinta do Lago, a gated community in the Algarve region of Portugal. The property was previously listed for €20 million.

查理·史密斯(Charlie Smith)是紐約房地產公司Concierge Auctions的歐洲顧問,這家公司專門經營價值在200萬美元以上的房地產。史密斯說,簽證的誘惑力是一個重要的營銷工具。他最近在中國和新加坡進行了一系列宣講活動,為圣洛倫索別墅(Villa San Lorenzo)的拍賣招徠客戶。這處有九間臥室的房產位于葡萄牙阿爾加維地區的一個封閉式社區金塔湖(Quinta do Lago),此前的市場標價為2000萬歐元。

Mr. Smith said that he had “specifically targeted” his customer databases in China with the property because China is the strongest market for Portugal’s golden visa program. In the 12 months ended in February, 4,159 Chinese used the program, a 30 percent increase over the previous year and well ahead of second-place Brazil, with 695 investors.

史密斯說,他“明確地”以他的中國客戶數據庫為這處房產的目標群體,因為中國是葡萄牙“黃金簽證”項目最強勁的市場。截至今年二月的12個月里,有4159名中國人使用了該項目,比上年增長了30%,遠超排名第二的巴西,巴西獲得葡萄牙“黃金簽證”的投資者人數是695名。

Some developers are making the residency programs an integral part of their plans, shaping their prices and timelines around the best way to qualify for visas. When the high-end property consulting firm Athena Advisers ran a promotion for several Portuguese developments at its London offices in March, it flew in developers from Lisbon to pitch their projects, and lawyers to explain how the investments could qualify for the golden visa program.

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live/

一些開發商正在把居留簽證項目作為其開發計劃中基本的一環,圍繞著獲得簽證資格的最佳方式來確定他們的價格和時間表。當高端房地產咨詢公司Athena Advisers今年3月在其倫敦辦事處為幾個葡萄牙開發項目做宣傳時,他們為里斯本的幾個開發商買機票飛來倫敦推銷自己的開發項目,還請了律師來解釋這些投資將如何幫助客戶獲得“黃金簽證”項目的資格。

Over red wine and finger food, an audience of about 20 potential buyers asked questions that focused as much on the golden visas as on the likely rental and investment returns of the projects.

聽眾約有20名潛在賣家,他們一邊喝著紅酒、吃著手取食物,一邊提問,問題的重點除了“黃金簽證”外,還有開發項目可能的租金收入和投資回報。

Sérgio Ferreira, the chief executive of the developer Coporgest, explained how a 43-apartment project in central Lisbon had been structured to take maximum advantage of the visa system.

開發商Coporgest的首席執行官塞爾吉奧·費雷拉(Sérgio Ferreira)對一處位于里斯本市中心、有43套公寓的項目怎樣最大限度地利用“黃金簽證”系統做了解釋。

The project, SottoMayor Premium, involves the renovation of a 19th-century building so buyers can qualify for a €350,000 threshold, rather than the normal minimum investment of €500,000.

這個名為SottoMayor Premium的項目涉及對一幢建于19世紀的大樓進行翻新,因為是老樓翻新,所以買家只需投資35萬歐元,就能滿足簽證項目的最低門檻,而不是通常需要的50萬歐元。

Unusually, some sales of the apartments, which are priced from €420,000 to €1.6 million, have been packaged as interest-paying special-purpose vehicles designed with the visa in mind.

不同尋常的是,部分公寓的銷售(價格從42萬歐元到160萬歐元不等)被包裝為專門為獲得簽證設計的付息的特殊目的投資。

As soon as an investor makes an initial payment of €350,000, the clock starts on the five-year waiting period for a full passport, even though the apartment might not be completed for another two or three years.

從投資者支付了35萬歐元首付款的時刻開始,將居留簽證變為護照所需的五年等待期的時鐘就開始轉起來,即使該人購買的公寓建成可能還需要兩三年的時間。

João Cunha Vaz, a senior partner with the law firm Edge, briefed Athena’s clients on the visa program and several tax-reducing programs offered by Portugal, including the “non-habitual resident” option, which offers a decade of tax breaks and has been attracting French citizens and other foreigners.

律師事務所Edge的一名資深合伙人若昂·庫尼亞·瓦斯(João Cunha Vaz)為Athena的客戶對簽證項目、以及葡萄牙提供的幾個減稅項目作了介紹,這些減稅項目包括“非常住居民”選項。這個選項提供10年的稅收減免,一直吸引著法國公民和其他外國人。

Another country that has recently developed a visa program is Brazil, which in the past saw many of its citizens moving money abroad to obtain second passports. Now, it is trying to reverse the trend.

另一個近期開始提供簽證項目的國家是巴西。巴西過去曾看到許多自己的公民,為獲得第二國護照將資金轉移至國外。如今,該國正在試圖扭轉這個趨勢。

Edouard Barthelemy, Athena’s manager in Rio de Janeiro, says the program is too new to have yielded results. But he is confident it will build interest in high-end properties.

Athena在里約熱內盧的經理愛德華·巴特勒米(Edouard Barthelemy)表示,這個項目仍很新,還沒有出成果。但他對項目會建立起對高端房地產的興趣有信心。

Not everyone is pleased with the growth of visa programs.

并非所有人都對簽證項目的增長感到高興。

Critics say that while countries like Cyprus and Malta are reaping the benefits of handing out passports, what they are really offering is the right to live anywhere in the European Union. And they say such programs can attract shady characters.

批評人士說,盡管像塞浦路斯和馬耳他這樣的國家正在從發放本國護照上收到好處,但他們實際上提供的是在歐盟任意國家居住的權利。批評人士說,這種項目會吸引可疑人士。

But others say that getting visas through real estate transactions involves vetting for criminal records, for instance, which is a far more restrictive process than the scrutiny faced by the million people a year who are given European Union passports through marriage or the reuniting of family.

但其他人說,通過房地產交易獲得簽證的過程包括審查犯罪記錄,與每年通過結婚或與家人團聚為由獲得歐盟簽證的上百萬人經受的審查相比,這個過程的限制多得多。

“Anyone who is a real security threat or a major criminal would not put themselves through that scrutiny — they have other ways to get a passport or go where they want,” said Mr. Kälin, of Henley & Partners.

“任何構成真正安全威脅的人,或有重大刑事犯罪的人都不會讓自己經受這種審查——他們有獲得護照、或是去其想去地方的其他方式,”恒理的卡林說。

There are tax advantages in having residence rights in countries like Antigua, Cyprus and Malta, which charge little income tax on offshore assets and do not require the investor to live in the country for any significant period.

在安提瓜、塞浦路斯和馬耳他等國,擁有居留權可以帶來納稅方面的好處,這些國家對離岸資產幾乎不征收所得稅,而且不要求投資者在該國國內居住很長時間。

Mr. Kälin was a key figure in turning the trade in passports and residency visas into an industry.

在將護照和居留簽證的買賣變成一個行業方面,卡林是一個關鍵人物。

St. Kitts and Nevis became the first country to introduce a formal program of selling passports in 1984, the year after it won independence from Britain.

1984年,圣基茨和尼維斯聯邦成為第一個把出售護照變成正式項目的國家,此前一年,它從英國獲得了獨立。

Mr. Kälin approached the government with an offer to revamp the program and then negotiated a visa-free access agreement for St. Kitts with the European Union’s Schengen Area, a zone comprising 26 countries without passport controls.

卡林與該國政府進行了接觸,提出了改進該項目的建議,然后他與歐盟申根區為圣基茨談成了不需要簽證就能進入的協議。歐盟申根區指的是國家之間不用邊境護照檢查的26個國家。

That kind of access was on Natalia Yavorska’s mind when she and her husband bought land on the Canary Islands. She found many visa applications “a humiliating experience where they want fingerprints and medical tests and treat you like a refugee trying to sneak over the border.”

娜塔莉亞·亞沃斯卡和丈夫買下加那利群島那塊地時,腦子里想的就是這種準入。她發現許多簽證申請是“一種羞辱人的經歷,他們要你提交指紋和體檢化驗,把你當作一個試圖偷渡邊境的難民對待。”

“A passport with visa-free access to a lot of countries is just so much better,” she said.

“一本不需要簽證就能進入許多國家的護照要好得多,”她說。

After St. Kitts, Mr. Kälin’s firm went on to advise Grenada and Antigua on how to design their programs, and it is now retained by Moldova, which sells passports for €140,000 rather than requiring property investment, and Malta.

圣基茨之后,卡林的公司繼續為格林納達和安提瓜就如何設計它們的簽證項目提供建議,如今摩爾多瓦和馬耳他也聘定了這家公司。摩爾多瓦以14萬歐元出售護照,而不是要求房地產投資。

“These programs have been hugely important for those countries,” Mr. Kälin said. “They have transformed the economy in St. Kitts, been very significant in Antigua and Malta and have helped to dig Cyprus out of an economic crisis.”

“護照項目對那些國家來說非常重要,”卡林說。“它們改變了圣基茨的經濟,對安提瓜和馬耳他來說也一直很重要,并且幫助將塞浦路斯從經濟危機中解救了出來。”

The minimum investment under Spain’s golden visa program is €500,000, which can be made up of one or more purchases.

西班牙的黃金簽證項目最低投資要求是50萬歐元,可以通過一次購買來滿足,也可以通過幾次購買來達到。

The Yavorski family passed that easily by spending about €1 million for land where they built a three-bedroom villa overlooking a golf course and the ocean.

亞沃斯卡一家通過花100萬歐元買下土地輕松地過了這個門檻。他們在那片土地上蓋了一幢俯瞰著高爾夫球場和大海的有三間臥室的別墅。

Maria Moreno, the head of sales at Abama Luxury Residences, a Canary Islands developer, said golden visas have become a valuable marketing tool for projects such as hers, where the Yavorskis were the first buyers.

加那利群島的開發商Abama Luxury Residences的銷售代表瑪麗亞·莫雷諾(Maria Moreno)說,黃金簽證對她手里的項目來說,已經成為了一個很有價值的市場推廣工具,亞沃斯卡一家就是那里的首批買家。

“About 25 percent of our buyers are from outside the E.U., mainly from Russia, Ukraine, Brazil and the U.S., and four out of five apply for golden visas,” she said.

“我們的買家中有大約25%來自歐盟以外,主要來自俄羅斯、烏克蘭、巴西和美國,其中的五分之四申請黃金簽證,”她說。

網站部分信息來源于自互聯網和網友上傳,只為方便大家查詢瀏覽,請自行核對信息的真實情況,本站將不承擔任何責任!

您可以還會對下面的文章感興趣:

  • 36小時環游新加坡
  • 中國頒布新規,限制未成年人玩游戲
  • 辭掉工作、花了57天,他們找回了走失的狗
  • 改善健康也許很簡單:每天少吃300卡
  • 倫敦也為空氣污染發愁
  • 最新評論

    留言與評論(共有 條評論)
       
    驗證碼:
    14场胜负彩比分奖金