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《周六夜現場》演員歧視亞裔風波中的楊安澤

更新時間:2019/9/18 20:12:50 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

Andrew Yang Knows You May Disagree With Him About Shane Gillis
《周六夜現場》演員歧視亞裔風波中的楊安澤

Shane Gillis, a 31-year-old stand-up comedian who was named last week to the “Saturday Night Live” cast. He has called it a “hassle” to have to speak with a waiter in a Chinese restaurant. He has used a racial slur to refer to the entrepreneur Andrew Yang.

《周六夜現場》(Saturday Night Live)上周宣布的演員陣容中有31歲的單口滑稽演員肖恩·吉利斯(Shane Gillis)。他稱在中國餐館與服務員交流很“困難”。他在提到企業家楊安澤(Andrew Yang)時,使用過一個帶種族侮辱的詞語。

And in response, Mr. Yang, who has emerged as one of just a handful of viable Asian-American candidates ever to seek a major party’s nomination for president, has preached forgiveness.

楊安澤是少數幾個尋求獲得主要政黨總統候選人提名可行的亞裔美國人之一,他對吉利斯的回應是宣揚寬宏大量。

“Shane — I prefer comedy that makes people think and doesn’t take cheap shots. But I’m happy to sit down and talk with you if you’d like,” he said in a tweet over the weekend. “For the record, I do not think he should lose his job. We would benefit from being more forgiving rather than punitive. We are all human.”

“肖恩——我更喜歡的喜劇是能讓人們思考的那種,而不是惡意中傷。但如果你愿意,我樂意坐下來和你聊聊,”楊安澤在周末發的一個推文中說。“需要強調的是,我不認為他應該丟掉他的工作。我們都將受益于更多的寬容而不是懲罰。我們都是人。”

But lose his job Mr. Gillis did. On Monday afternoon, “S.N.L.” announced that he would not be joining the show, and in a statement, called his language “offensive, hurtful and unacceptable.”

不過,吉利斯還是丟了工作。周一下午,《周六夜現場》在一份聲明中宣布他將不再加入這個節目,聲明說他的語言“無禮、傷人、不可接受”。

Then, about an hour after the announcement, Mr. Yang tweeted again, suggesting that Mr. Gillis had taken him up on his offer to talk things out.

然后,在消息公布大約一個小時后,楊安澤又發了一條推文,暗示吉利斯接受了自己的邀請,愿意坐下來討論事情。

”Shane Gillis reached out,” Mr. Yang said. “Looks like we will be sitting down together soon.”

“肖恩·吉利斯表示愿意,”楊安澤說。“看來我們很快就要一起坐下來了。”

A spokesman for Mr. Yang did not have any comment on Mr. Gillis’s departure from the show on Monday night. Nonetheless, the dayslong ordeal with its swift and sudden turn has had the side effect of thrusting Mr. Yang, a long-shot candidate with a loyal following, into the spotlight and placing him at the center of a national conversation about, racism, outrage culture and absolution.

周一晚間,楊安澤的發言人對吉利斯不會在《周六夜現場》出現的宣布未發表任何評論。盡管如此,這場持續了幾天的難堪及其迅速且突然的轉變已經產生了一種副作用,那就是把公眾關注的目光投向了楊安澤這個成功希望不大,但有一批忠誠追隨者的候選人,將他置于一場有關種族主義、憤怒文化和赦罪的全國性討論的中心。

For more than a year, Mr. Yang, 44, has built support from outside the political establishment by purposely staying above the political fray, posting videos of himself having fun playing basketball and preaching “humanity first” as a central tenet of his campaign. His response to Mr. Gillis over the weekend echoed those inviting approaches.

一年多來,44歲的楊安澤通過有意把自己置于政治紛爭之上,在政治勢力集團以外的人當中爭取到了支持,他在網上發布自己打籃球取樂的視頻,將“把人放在首位”(humanity first)宣傳為他競選的一個核心原則。他周末對吉利斯的回應呼應了這些吸引人的做法。

But as many “S.N.L.” viewers and others across the country clamored for Mr. Gillis to be fired, believing his jokes to be beyond excusable, Mr. Yang’s response unnerved those hoping for a more forceful condemnation from him. Perhaps the most pointed criticism has come from the Asian-American community itself, where some have expressed a mix of incredulity and weighty disappointment at the way Mr. Yang has talked about race throughout his campaign.

但就在許多《周六夜現場》的觀眾以及全國各地的其他人大聲要求解雇吉利斯,認為他的笑話超出了可原諒的范圍時,楊安澤的回應讓那些希望他做出更有力譴責的人感到不安。也許,最尖銳的批評來自亞裔美國人社區本身,這個社區中有些人對楊安澤在整個競選過程中談論種族的方式或表示某種驚疑,或表示嚴重的失望。

Mr. Yang took “a position that’s very much at odds with the Asian-American community,” said Jenn Fang, the creator of a long-running Asian-American advocacy blog, Reappropriate, who tweeted over the weekend about Mr. Yang’s comments. “He’s trying to let Shane Gillis off the hook so he can cater to other voters that he needs to get to the White House.”

楊安澤采取了“與亞裔美國人社區有很大分歧的立場”,運行了很久的倡導亞裔美國人權益的博客Reappropriate的創始人詹·方(Jenn Fang)說,她周末發了關于楊安澤對此事評論的推文。“他正在試圖讓肖恩·吉利斯逃脫懲罰,這樣他就能迎合他入主白宮所需的其他選民。”

Mr. Yang also received significant blowback from people within and outside Asian-American communities for appearing to draw a comparison between how society treats anti-Asian racism and anti-black racism.

楊安澤也受到了來自亞裔美國人社區內外人士的強烈反沖,因為他似乎把社會針對亞洲人的種族主義與針對黑人的種族主義的方式進行比較。

“Anti-Asian racism is particularly virulent because it’s somehow considered more acceptable,” Mr. Yang argued on Twitter. “If Shane had used the n word, the treatment would likely be immediate and clear.”

“針對亞洲人的種族主義尤其有害,因為由于某種原因人們認為它更容易被接受,”楊安澤在Twitter上寫道。“如果肖恩使用了那個n打頭的詞,對他的處理很可能是立刻和明確的。”

As one of three remaining candidates in the race who do not have a background in politics, Mr. Yang has won fans by speaking off the cuff and peppering his stump speech with sometimes self-deprecating humor. Because he has made automation and concern over mass unemployment central themes of his candidacy, he has won the support of some young, white, male Trump voters while at the same time attracting progressives and a significant share of Asian-Americans — all groups he seeks to hold together under the apolitical campaign catch phrase “Not left, not right, but forward.”

作為仍在參選的三名沒有政治背景的候選人之一,楊安澤用即興演講和在巡回演說中穿插的一些有時自嘲的幽默贏得了粉絲。由于他把自動化和大規模失業的擔憂作為參選的中心議題,從而贏得了一些支持特朗普的年輕白人男性選民,同時吸引了進步人士和很大一部分亞裔美國人,他尋求用非政治但很上口的政治口號“不左不右,一致向前”讓這些群體保持團結。

But his handling of race has sometimes undermined that careful balancing act and raised the concerns among some who say he has been too willing to lean in to stereotypes about Asian-Americans to win support. His biggest applause line remains “The opposite of Donald Trump is an Asian man who likes math”; in front of a national television audience during the debate last week, he observed, “I am Asian, so I know a lot of doctors.”

但他對種族問題的處理有時已破壞了這種謹慎的平衡,并在一些人中引發了擔憂,這些人說,為了贏得支持,他一直過于愿意向亞裔美國人的刻板印象靠攏。他贏得最大掌聲的臺詞仍是“唐納德·特朗普的對立面是一個喜歡數學的亞洲人”;在上周的辯論中,他當著全國電視觀眾的面說,“我是亞洲人,所以我認識很多醫生。”

In tweets, Mr. Yang also reiterated that he had been the target of racial epithets in the past. Asked about his jokes about liking math and knowing doctors, he has maintained that the Asian-American community is diverse, that his individual experience does not speak for everyone and that Americans are smart enough to see through the model minority myth, which overgeneralizes Asians as diligent and high-achieving.

楊安澤在推文中還重申,自己過去一直被人用種族歧視性字眼。在被問及他喜歡數學和認識醫生的玩笑時,他堅持認為,亞裔美國群體是多樣化的,他的個人經歷不足以代表每個人,美國人也足夠聰明,能看穿模范少數族裔的迷思,即籠統地認為亞裔都勤奮、成績好。

In an interview on Monday with The New York Times just hours before Mr. Gillis was dropped from “S.N.L.,” Mr. Yang said he had not meant to compare his experience as an Asian-American to “the experience of growing up black in this country.” He said he had intended only to make an “observation” about anti-Asian racism and the fact that it is not always taken seriously.

在吉利斯被《周六夜現場》開除前幾小時楊安澤接受《紐約時報》采訪時表示,他的本意不是要把自己作為亞裔美國人的經歷與“這個國家的黑人成長經歷”相提并論。他說,自己原本只是想就反亞裔種族主義及這個問題往往不受重視來談點“看法”。

Mr. Yang said he and his wife had sat down to watch Mr. Gillis’s comedy routines for 30 minutes to an hour and had concluded that he was not “malignant or evil.” He also said he had resisted sending a tweet containing an explicative that would have more forcefully expressed his anger at Mr. Gillis.

楊安澤稱,他和妻子坐下來,用半小時到一小時的時間看了吉利斯的喜劇節目,得出的結論是,他“沒有惡意也不邪惡”。他還表示自己按下了發一條闡釋性推文的想法,那會更有力地表達他對吉利斯的不滿。

“There’s a complex set of reactions one has,” Mr. Yang said.

“人會有一系列復雜的反應,”楊安澤說。

He said that someone had yelled a slur at him out a car window “just the other day” and added that he had talked to his wife about the experience. He said they had bemoaned the fact that such a slur could eventually be directed at one of their boys.

他表示“就在前幾天”,曾有人在車窗外對他喊了一句侮辱性的話,還說他跟妻子討論了這件事。他說讓他痛心的是,這樣的侮辱言辭可能最終會用到他的孩子身上。

Mr. Yang also denied that there were any politics at play. “This is both how I genuinely see this and what I think is best,” he said. “I totally respect people who have different points of view.”

楊安澤還否認其中有任何政治因素在起作用。“這既是我的真實看法,也是我認為最好的方式,”他說。“我完全尊重持有不同意見的人。”

Danielle Seid, an assistant professor of English at Baruch College who studies film and television history, said Mr. Yang had definitely found himself “in a tough spot.” He had been right to point out that anti-Asian racism has often not been treated seriously, she said, but he may not have done “a good job of parsing that with his tweets about the n-word.”

巴魯克學院(Baruch College)研究影視歷史的助理教授丹尼爾·賽義德(Danielle Seid)表示,楊安澤無疑發現自己“處境艱難”。她說,他指出針對亞裔的種族主義往往不受重視是對的,但“關于N打頭那個字眼的推文,卻沒有很好地分析這一點”。

Mr. Yang’s comments could have been read as an argument that “Asians have it worse” than other minority groups, when “it’s pretty clear that, in terms of racist policies and practices and culture in the United States, so much of it is founded on anti-black racism,” said, Ellen Wu, an associate professor of history at Indiana University.

楊安澤的言論可能會被解讀為,他認為比起其他少數群體的歧視問題,“亞裔情況更糟”,因為“很明顯,就美國的種族主義政策、做法和文化而言,太多都基于反黑人種族主義”,印第安納大學歷史學副教授艾倫·吳(Ellen Wu)說。

At a broader level, both Professor Seid and Professor Wu said Mr. Yang’s high profile had made him something of a spokesman for the Asian-American community. As such, Professor Seid said she wished Mr. Yang had been “more forceful in condemning Mr. Gillis’s ‘jokes’ and taken the opportunity to congratulate Bowen Yang,” one of the show’s writers who was also elevated to a featured performer’s position.

在更廣泛的層面上,賽義德和艾倫·吳都認為,楊安澤的知名度多少讓他成為亞裔美國群體的代言人。正因為如此,賽義德表示,她希望楊安澤當初能“更有力地譴責吉利斯的‘玩笑’,并借機祝賀楊伯文(Bowen Yang)”,后者是這檔節目的編劇之一,現被提升到特約表演者的位置。

Kevin Xu, a co-host of the Model MAJORITY Podcast and a former Obama White House staff member, said he had wanted Mr. Gillis to lose his job “because he is racist and not funny.”

Model MAJORITY播客(意指“模范多數族裔”——譯注)搭檔主持人、奧巴馬時期前白宮工作人員凱文·徐(Kevin Xu)表示,他曾希望吉利斯丟掉工作,“因為他是個種族主義者,而且不好笑。”

But he defended Mr. Yang’s handling of the situation. Given that Mr. Yang is a candidate for president, Mr. Xu said he believed it was appropriate for him to “take the high road.”

但他為楊安澤的處理方式進行了辯護。鑒于楊安澤總統候選人的身份,凱文·徐稱他“采取高姿態”是合適的。

“This is the best way he could have handled something like this,” Mr. Xu said. “I think over all he’s doing a pretty good job owning up to his minority status while still doing what he needs to do to run for president.”

“這是他處理這類事情的最好方式,”凱文·徐說。“我認為他總體上做得很好,一面坦白承認自己的少數族裔地位,一面仍做著競選總統需要做的事情。”

“I don’t think that, for someone like him — just like Barack Obama or Hillary Clinton or any other historical candidate trying to break any sort of ceiling — they can do this perfectly,” Mr. Xu added. “It’s a very, very high-wire act. It’s very hard.”

“我不認為,像他這樣的人——可以像貝拉克·奧巴馬或希拉里·克林頓或任何其他往屆候選人那樣,試圖打破任何一種天花板——他們可以很好地做到這一點,”凱文·徐補充說。“這是一種風險非常、非常大的行為。難度很大。”

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