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城市過度觀光 居民不堪重負該怎么辦?

更新時間:2019/10/3 10:43:38 來源:紐約時報中文網 作者:佚名

What's it like to live in an over-touristed city?
城市過度觀光 居民不堪重負該怎么辦?

Global travel and tourism continues to grow at breakneck speed, growing faster than the global GDP and contributing more than $8 trillion to the economy every year. Yet, in some cities seeing a record numbers of visitors, governments and residents alike are starting to question whether this growth of tourism might be too much of a good thing.

全球旅游觀光業發展神速,其驚人增長速度甚至超過全球GDP的增長,每年的觀光經濟高達過8萬億美元。然而,成也觀光,敗也觀光,在一些觀光客人數創紀錄的著名旅游城市,政府和居民已開始擔心,觀光業這樣的增長之勢是否已好過了頭。

In order to understand the struggles these cities could face in coming years and how they might address them, the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) and real estate firm JLL recently put together the Destination 2030 index as a way to measure tourism readiness, based on tourism growth and the cities’ ability to manage that growth. The index measures 75 tourism indicators – including the concentration of visitors, urban readiness and local policy engagement – to determine the challenges ahead for 50 of the world’s major cities.

為了解過度觀光城市在未來幾年將會面臨的問題及其因應之道,世界旅行觀光委員會(WTTC)和房地產公司仲量聯行(JLL),最近綜合觀光業的增長數據和觀光城市承受此增長之能力的數據,提出了觀光勝地2030年旅游指數報告,以此來評估這些旅游勝地對未來觀光旅游業的發展前景是否已做好充分準備。該報告共評估了75項旅游指數,其中有觀光客集中度、城市應對水平和當地政策參與度等,判斷全球50個熱門觀光城市是否有足夠準備來面對未來的挑戰。

In the report’s ‘Managing Momentum’ group, cities with high growth in tourism numbers were flagged as potentially causing strain on existing infrastructure if steps aren’t taken to manage the growth. We talked to a few residents in these cities to find out how the influx of travellers in recent years has affected them, how authorities are responding and how visitors can remain respectful of the people who live there year-round.

被報告歸納為“增勢很強應受管理”這一組的城市,旅游觀光增長太快,如果不采取措施應對這樣的增長勢頭,城市現有的基礎建設和旅游設施將會受到很大的沖擊。我們采訪了這些城市的一些居民,了解近年觀光客潮水般的涌入如何打擾到他們的生活,而他們的政府又采取了什么樣的因應措施,以及他們希望游客應該以什么樣的方式來尊重這里的常住居民。

Amsterdam

阿姆斯特丹

With 18 million visitors last year and a population of under 1 million, Amsterdam has seen tourists add to rising real-estate prices due in part to short-term rentals, as well as contribute to overcrowded streets and problems with their relaxed drug laws. In the index, Amsterdam ranks in the highest quartile for concentration of visitors and overall ‘crunch’ (the strain on the city). Unhappy residents have given it the derogatory nickname of ‘Venice’, a symbol of a city overrun by holidaymakers.

阿姆斯特丹人口不足100萬,但去年卻接待了1,800萬游客,過多的游客給不斷上漲的房價火上澆油,部分原因是因為游客短期租房大增。此外過量游客還造成大街小巷人潮洶涌,以及大麻毒品使用寬松帶來的問題。在這份報告中,阿姆斯特丹的游客集中度和城市總體“受沖擊”指數排名在最高的25%的城市之列。為此感到氣悶的居民以含貶義的“威尼斯”來自稱他們的居住地,意味阿姆斯特丹已不是他們的家園,而是觀光度假者的城市。

Still, some say the picture isn’t as bleak as the media makes it out to be. “Museums finally have enough budget and small businesses are thriving,” said Amsterdam native Hanneke Vroegindeweij, co-founder of private tour company Amsterdam Odyssey. “In 42 years of my life, I’ve never seen my city so beautiful.”

但是也有人說,阿姆斯特丹的現狀并非媒體所說的那么嚴峻。阿姆斯特丹當地人、私營旅游公司“阿姆斯特丹奧德賽”(Amsterdam Odyssey)的創辦人之一漢內克·歐文德維(Hanneke Vroegindeweij)說,因游客增加,“博物館終于預算充足,小商小販也繁榮興旺。我活了42年,還從未見過我的城市像如今天般美麗。”

That doesn’t mean there isn’t plenty to be done, and the Dutch government is working on it quickly. The city has banned short-term rentals like Airbnb in certain areas, and has plans to stop cruise ships from docking. The city also has worked on channelling tourists to other Dutch cities, like Zandvoort (only 40km from Amsterdam’s city centre), renamed ‘Amsterdam Beach’ to give people the feeling it is an accessible destination.

但這并不意味著已無可改善之處。荷蘭政府正在迅速采取因應措施。阿姆斯特丹已在市區某些地段限制向游客提供短期租房服務,如Airbnb租房等。還計劃禁止游輪停靠阿姆斯特丹的中央碼頭。該城還盡力將游客吸引疏散到荷蘭其他城市,比如離阿姆斯特丹市中心僅40公里的荷蘭度假城市贊德沃特(Zandvoort),并因此將該城的海灘易名為“阿姆斯特丹海灘”(Amsterdam Beach),希望以此吸引阿姆斯特丹的度假觀光客也到此一游。

“The city is implementing several projects promoting different kinds of tourism with an emphasis on sustainability, ‘slow travel’ or lesser-known neighbourhoods with projects like ‘24H Noord’, [part of the 24H Amsterdam programme, which dedicates a day to exploring the lesser known and trafficked districts in the city],” Vroegindeweij said. “We aren’t against having lots of tourists in Amsterdam. We just want them – and the city – to rise above the level of mass tourism.”

歐文德維說:“阿姆斯特丹正在推行多個計劃以促進多類型的旅游觀光模式,重點在強調可持續性類型、‘慢游’方式,及推銷知名度不高的社區旅游,比如最近推出的‘24小時北郊之行’(24小時阿姆斯特丹觀光計劃的一部分,這個計劃是引導游客前往較僻靜商販較少的區域)。我們并不反對大量游客來阿姆斯特丹游覽。我們只是希望游客,以及我們的城市,能夠將旅游品質提升到大眾旅游的水平之上。”

San Francisco

舊金山

California’s coastal city has always been a draw for tourists with its iconic Golden Gate Bridge and Fisherman’s Wharf, but the Silicon Valley tech boom here has put additional strain on the resources of the city, even as tourist numbers continue to grow. In the index, San Francisco ranks in the highest quartile for overall ‘crunch’.

舊金山,加州這座海濱城市,以金門大橋(Golden Gate Bridge)和漁人碼頭(Fisherman's Wharf)吸引著源源不絕的游客,但除了游客數字的節節上升,硅谷的科技繁榮也給舊金山的城市資源帶來了額外的壓力。在世界旅行觀光委員會的報告中,舊金山在整體“沖擊壓力”指數上也屬于排名最高的25%城市之列。

One of the landmark lightning rods in the city right now is Lombard Street, known as ‘the crookedest street in the world’ for its winding, steep hairpin turns. “The traffic backup to travel down this little stretch spills over into neighbouring streets and blocks the flow of traffic,” said Kristine Dworkin, whose family has lived here for generations. “Groups stop to take selfies at the bottom with seemingly no notice of the cars coming towards them. Pedestrians also don't seem to realise that the homes along Lombard are private property and frequently trespass in the yards.” In response to the complaints, the city recently approved a toll-based reservation system, which could go into effect as early as next year.

這座城市目前最吸引人的地標之一是倫巴第街(Lombard Street),以其蜿蜒和陡峭的多個急轉彎而被稱為“世界上最彎曲的街道”,華人稱之為九曲花街。克里斯婷·德沃金(Kristine Dworkin)的家族居住在這條街已歷經數代。她說:“想沿著這一小段路而下的游客車輛,造成了交通堵塞,并影響到鄰近的街區。”她說:“觀光團游客聚在彎曲道的下方自拍,似乎不在意迎面駛來的車輛。步行的游客似乎也沒有意識到倫巴第街兩旁的房屋是私人住家,因而經常闖入人家的院子。”為了回應倫巴第街居民的投訴,該市最近通過了開車經過九曲花街需交費預約的政策,最早將于明年生效執行。

Lombard isn’t the only street where tourists get a little too close for comfort to private residences. Alamo Square Park in the centre of the city is lined with the ‘Painted Ladies’, variously coloured Victorian houses dating to the 1890s – made even more famous for being the backdrop of the opening to the sitcom Full House. “On a recent visit to Alamo Park, my kids were stunned to watch from the park as person after person walked up on the front porch of the home from Full House and snapped family portraits,” Dworkin said. “My daughter asked me, ‘Mom, do they think people don't live there? Maybe they think it’s a set from the show’.”

倫巴第街并不是唯一一條游客為了滿足自己的游興而過于靠近私人住宅的街道。舊金山市中心的阿拉莫廣場公園(Alamo Square Park)有一排稱為“彩妝女士”(Painted Ladies)的住宅,這些顏色繽紛的維多利亞風格房子建于1890年代,更因為作為情景喜劇《歡樂滿屋》(Full House)的開場背景而舉世聞名。德沃金說:“最近我帶孩子去阿拉莫公園玩,我的孩子們在公園里看到一個接一個的游客走上作為《歡樂滿屋》前景的那棟房子的前廊,拍攝全家福照片,感到非常的吃驚。女兒問我:‘媽媽,那些人難道以為房子沒有主人嗎?也許他們認為這只不過是電視劇中的一個場景而已。’”

The city generates more than $9 billion from tourists annually, so city officials are embracing the traffic and working on initiatives to clean up other parts of the city and make it more attractive for visitors. In return, it’s basic empathy and respect that residents like Dworkin would like to see.

舊金山每年的觀光旅游收益超過90億美元,因此市政府官員積極改善交通,并采取措施清潔城市的其他區域,以進一步提升舊金山的旅游吸引力。但也希望游客能以同理心和尊重回報德沃金等舊金山居民,不要干擾到他們的生活。

Prague

布拉格

Ranking in the highest quartile for overall crunch and the density of tourist traffic, the Czech Republic’s capital (a city of just 1.3 million people) attracted a record 7.9 million visitors last year. Most tourists never leave the area of Prague 1, the district with Old Town, Malá Strana (The Lesser Quarter) and the castle area, which keeps the negative effects contained.

捷克共和國首都布拉格人口130萬,但去年卻吸引了創紀錄的790萬游客,在總體擁堵和旅游交通密度方面是排名最高的25%城市之一。不過大多數游客會一直待在布拉格1區,即包括布拉格老城區、馬拉·斯特拉納區(Malá Strana, The Lesser Quarter,小城區)和城堡區這幾個區域,這使得觀光的負面影響僅受限于這些區域之內。

“It’s something of a shame that the centre has now been surrendered to tourists but even there, locals can find refuge and cheap-ish beers in places known mostly to university students,” said Charlie Neville, originally from London, who has lived in Prague since 2002 and works for custom tour operator JayWay Travel. “We enjoy a much less busy version of Prague in neighbourhoods like Letná with its beer garden with one of the best views of the city, tree-lined avenues of Vinohrady, trendy Karlin, and hipster Vrsovice.”

查理·內維爾(Charlie Neville)說:“布拉格市中心現在已拜倒在觀光客膝下,這很可惜。不過當地人還是可以在只有大學生才知道的街區找到幽靜的地方和平價啤酒。”內維爾來自倫敦,2002年以后定居布拉格,現在在JayWay客制化旅游公司工作。他說:“我們喜歡布拉格不那么熱鬧的街區,比如萊特納(Letna),這里有啤酒花園,可俯瞰布拉克最美景色的觀景地,還有維諾拉迪(Vinohrady)的林蔭大道,以及時尚的卡林(Karlin)和潮人匯集的維休維吉(Vrsovice)。”

To keep the effects of tourism in check, the Prague city council has worked to enforce night-quiet rules, has banned Segways and is currently working on a ban on traffic-impacting ‘beer-bikes’, popular pedal-powered trolley bikes that tour breweries and bars in the city centre.

布拉格市政府為了控制游客泛濫對市民生活的影響,已制定措施以維護夜晚的寧靜,并禁止在街上使用賽格威電動平衡車(Segways),目前還在努力禁止會影響交通的“啤酒自行車”。所謂“啤酒自行車”是指一種受游客歡迎的電動踏板車,因在市中心的釀酒坊和酒吧間穿梭而得名。

Much like in Amsterdam, the Czech tourism bureau is working on moving people out of the capital. “Český Krumlov [a Bohemian castle town 170km south of Prague] is already too busy with day trips, but the [country’s] second largest city, Brno, is a pleasant tourist-free alternative, as is Olomouc,” Neville said.

如同阿姆斯特丹一樣,捷克旅游局也正想方設法將游客分散出首都布拉格。內維爾說:“布拉格以南170公里外的波希米亞城堡小鎮克魯姆洛夫(Česky Krumlov)已經有太多一日游的游客,但捷克第二大城市布爾諾(Brno)觀光客比較少,捷克東部城市奧羅姆(Olomouc)也是一個不錯的選擇。”

Barcelona

巴塞羅那

Barcelona has struggled in recent years to manage the number of tourists descending on its sun-soaked streets, and ranked in the index’s highest quartile for overall ‘crunch’. With more than 30 million visitors last year, tourists can far outnumber the local population of 1.6 million, which puts a strain on city resources.

西班牙的巴塞羅那也是整體壓力指數最高的25%城市之一。巴塞羅那陽光普照的大道游客人頭洶涌,去年迎來3000多萬游客,遠遠超過了這座城市160萬的人口,這給城市設施資源帶來了很大壓力。因此巴塞羅那近年來一直在努力控制游客數量。

“Tourists bother me when a group of eight or more take the neighbourhood bus – a small minibus that neighbours use to go uphill to their homes, especially for elderly and families with kids or strollers or people carrying heavy shopping bags,” said Barcelona native Marta Laurent Veciana, owner of tour company ForeverBarcelona.com. Big tourist groups also often block the subway ticket validating machines. “Leave at least one machine available for locals so they don’t have to wait until your entire group has validated their ticket to go in.”

巴塞羅那當地人,旅游公司ForeverBarcelona.com的老板馬塔‧維西納(Marta Laurent Veciana)說:“游客如果一團8人或以上乘搭本地社區巴士,會讓我很不安。因為這是附近居民乘坐回家的小巴,這是一條上坡路,對年老長者、或攜帶孩子和幼兒的父母及帶著沉重購物袋的人,是不可或缺的交通工具。”大型旅游團也經常堵住地鐵站的所有驗票機。“至少應該給當地人留一臺機器,這樣當地人就不用等到成團人都驗票后他們才能進到地鐵站。”

As a beach destination, Barcelona can sometimes attract badly behaved tourists. “It’s really annoying when you see tourists throwing garbage on the streets, or drunk gringos [foreigners] at night vomiting around,” said María José Castro, who moved here a year ago. Veciana also has a problem with people who feel like it’s OK to wander naked in the streets, a sight that is all too common. “There are two nudist beaches, if they want! Also, men shouldn’t go bare-chested outside of the beach area.”

巴塞羅那也是海灘旅游勝地,有時也會因此招來不文明的游客。一年前移居巴塞羅那的瑪麗亞·卡斯楚(Maria Jose Castro)說:“看到游客在街上扔垃圾,或者晚上看到外國醉鬼嘔吐得一地都是,是很令人討厭的。”令維西納感到頭痛的是,有人覺得在街上赤身裸體游蕩沒有問題,而這竟然是常見到的景象。維西納說:“如果他們想要赤身裸體,這里有兩個裸體海灘可以去!而且,除非在海灘,男士不應該赤裸上身。”

Residents say tourists could take basic steps of not littering and staying quieter at night to ease some of the burden on locals. The government has also worked in recent years on initiatives to reduce the strain. They recently implemented a new shuttle bus from Alfons X subway station (L4, yellow line) to Gaudi’s Park Güell, free of charge with a park ticket purchase; and worked to pedestrianise many of the streets around the Sagrada Família basilica. They’ve also passed laws restricting Segway and bike tours to certain areas, away from crowded areas like the waterfront.

巴塞羅那居民表示,游客只要稍微收斂一下行為,比如不亂扔垃圾,晚上不要喧鬧,就可以少給當地人帶來麻煩。巴塞羅那近年來也采取一些措施以減少游客對城市的沖擊。他們最近開設了一種新的穿梭巴士,連接地鐵4號黃色線的Alfons X站和高迪設計的奎爾公園(Park Guell),有公園入場券的可免費乘搭。此外,還會將游客最多的圣家堂周圍的許多街道改為步行街。巴塞羅那還通過法律,在某些地區限制游客使用賽格威電動平衡車和自行車,如人口密集的海濱等的地區。

Toronto

多倫多

Not every city sees the growing number of visitors as a bad thing. “Personally, I love seeing more people flocking to our great city of Toronto,” said Kyle Collier, founder of tech startup Phaze. “I've lived in Shanghai, China, so from my standpoint Toronto has lots of space.” That doesn’t mean Toronto doesn’t face challenges ahead ­– the index ranks the city in the highest quartile for overall ‘crunch’.

游客增加并非每個城市都認為是件壞事。科技初創公司Phaze的創辦人凱爾‧科利爾(Kyle Collier)說:“我本人喜歡看到我們偉大的城市多倫多客似云來。我在中國上海生活,因此就我的視角來看,多倫多容納游客的空間很多。”空間多并不意味多倫多未來不會面臨挑戰。世界觀光旅游委員會的報告已將多倫多列入整體“沖擊壓力”指數中排名最高的25%城市之中。

While the tourism industry seems ready to take on the influx of visitors, according to locals, it’s housing where residents are feeling the real pressure. “Toronto was already facing an affordable housing shortage. Especially in the downtown core, this has been exacerbated by the advent of holiday rentals (such as Airbnb),” said resident Eric Wychopen, who blogs about the province at Ontario Away. “It’s common now to see condo terms and conditions prohibiting renters from posting their properties for holiday rent. However, it’s also common knowledge that some tenants still illegally rent their properties.”

據多倫多居民說,雖然多倫多旅游業似乎已做好準備迎接大量游客的到來,但讓當地居民感到真正壓力的是住房。多倫多居民埃里克‧維丘朋(Eric Wychopen)是位旅游博客寫手,專門介紹加拿大安大略省的旅游信息。他說:“多倫多本來已有可負擔經濟住房出現短缺的問題。特別是在市中心,由于假日短期租房,如Airbnb的出現,更加劇了房荒。現在,租用公寓房的條款和條件普遍禁止租戶在網上出租假日公寓。不過也眾所周知,仍然有一些租戶在非法出租他們的公寓。”

For tourists, a little respect for the environment goes a long way for locals. “Littering is something that disappoints me,” Collier said. “You certainly wouldn't want people littering in your home, so why do it to everyone else? Respect the planet, and people, especially those you don't know.”

游客對所到之處只要略示尊重,而當地居民已是受惠不淺。科利爾說:“亂扔垃圾讓我很失望。你肯定不希望別人到你家作客而亂扔垃圾,那為什么要對別人做同樣的事呢?我們要尊重地球,尊重他人,尤其是你不認識的人。”

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