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TikTok上的特朗普世界

    Some of America's biggest social networks predate Donald j. trump's presidency, some more than a decade. Both have been transformed by Mr Trump's arrival and, like many other us institutions, have been caught up in a remarkable struggle over accountability and adaptation to political and social upheaval.

    美國最大的幾個社交網絡早于唐納德·J·特朗普的總統任期,有些甚至早了十多年。特朗普的上臺給它們都帶去了改變,和其他許多美國機構一樣,它們被卷入一場引人注目的斗爭,其核心是對政治和社會動蕩的問責與適應。

    Every social network says it wants to be a place for people to gather, communicate and act. Neither imagined what it would be like to be at the centre of American politics, a lack of imagination, to put it mildly.

    每個社交網絡都表示,希望成為一個供人們聚集、交流和行動的地方。它們都沒有想到,置身于美國政治中心原來是這樣一番景象,說得客氣一點,這是缺乏想象力的表現。

    Musical.ly, a lip-syncing app that became popular among teenagers in 2018, two years after the "America first" era was heralded, was recently acquired by Chinese technology group bytedance and incorporated into TikTok (it is known as douyin in the domestic Chinese market). The result was a short video-sharing platform that combined Instagram, Snapchat and Vine (now defunct) and was hugely successful with powerful recommendation algorithms. Its success -- it claims to have far more daily active users than Twitter, for example -- has also taken the tech industry by surprise, even though bytebeat has spent heavily to advertise its app on us platforms and videos made on TikTok have spread across rival networks such as Instagram.

    2018年,也就是宣告“美國優先”時代到來的兩年后,對口型唱歌的應用Musical.ly在青少年當中流行起來,最近,它被中國科技集團字節跳動收購,并將其并入TikTok(它在中國國內市場被稱為抖音)。由此產生的,是一個結合了Instagram、Snapchat和Vine(已作古)的短視頻分享平臺,在強大推薦算法配合下,它獲得了巨大的成功。它的成功——例如,它聲稱每日活躍用戶遠超Twitter——也讓科技行業感到意外,盡管字節跳動斥巨資在美國的平臺上為其應用做廣告,而且在TikTok上制作的視頻也在Instagram等競爭對手的網絡上傳播。

    At least its American form is the first post-trump social network. So what do its users think of the President?

    至少它的美國形式是第一個后特朗普時代的社交網絡。那么它的用戶對總統有什么看法呢?

    If you want to piss off liberals...

    “如果你想氣氣自由派……”

    If someone says that Donald trump "rules" TikTok, or that there is an unusually large amount of pro-trump content on the app, that is not true or likely. (besides, the only politician who regularly appears on TikTok is Arnold Schwarzenegger.) You feel like everything you see on this app is "dominating" TikTok because you're almost not sure why you're looking at it.

    如果有人說唐納德·特朗普“統治”了TikTok,或者這款應用上支持特朗普的內容多得不尋常,那并不正確,也不太可能。(此外,唯一經常出現在TikTok上的政治人物是阿諾德·施瓦辛格[Arnold Schwarzenegger]。)你會覺得在這個應用上看到的所有東西都在“統治”TikTok,因為你幾乎不確定自己為什么要看它。

    The first thing you notice about trumpworld on TikTok is the hat. It's no accident -- they're often the subject of videos. "Don't take eighth-graders to Washington," warns a smiling teenager in a "restore American greatness" hat. Then the camera cuts to her classmates, who also flash their hats.

    關于TikTok上的特朗普世界,你能注意到的第一樣東西就是帽子。這絕非偶然——它們經常是視頻的主題。“不要帶八年級的學生去華盛頓,”一個戴著“恢復美國偉大榮光”帽子的少女笑著警告說。然后鏡頭切換到她的同學們,也亮出了自己的帽子。

    California, said another young man, sitting in the driver's seat of his truck with a MAGA hat on the dashboard. "Let's see if we can make some friends." There are small items everywhere: t-shirts, flags, stickers. The trump-related TikTok video provides plenty of examples of how the actual user understands the President's various logos, slogans and branded items. With the opening chords of "Bad to the Bone," we see a pair of boots, then the back of a car. The guitars blared out, and we saw a new bumper sticker: the skull of the marvel Punisher, with the American flag folded and Donald trump-like hair.

    “到加利福尼亞了,”另一個年輕人說,他坐在自己的卡車駕駛座上,儀表盤上放著MAGA帽。“我們看看能不能交點朋友。”到處都是小商品:T恤、旗幟、貼紙。和Trump有關的TikTok視頻提供了大量例子,讓人們可以看到實際使用者是如何理解總統的各種標識、口號和品牌物品的。伴隨著《天生壞種》(Bad to the Bone)開始部分的和弦,我們看到一雙靴子,然后是一輛汽車的后部。吉他聲響亮起來,我們看到一個新的保險杠貼紙:漫威人物懲罰者(Punisher)的骷髏標志,上面疊著美國國旗,并留著近似唐納德·特朗普的頭發。
紐約時報中英文網 www.gwbyzx.live


    The most popular Trump support hashtags on TikTok are clear: #MAGA (restoring American greatness), #Trump. According to the platform, a dozen of the more popular tags have garnered tens of millions of hits, while countless smaller ones have accumulated tens or hundreds of thousands of hits. As with most social networks in 2019, there are conspiracy theorists and nazis close to the edge. Generally, these labels are not a place for conflict or debate. No debate or dialogue, just participation. They are not really communities, or even places. They are safe Spaces for people to laugh at "safe Spaces". They were actually having an anonymous intimate gathering. So this is... Rally?

    TikTok上最受歡迎的支持特朗普標簽都很明確:#MAGA(恢復美國偉大榮光)、#Trump。據該平臺稱,十幾個比較熱門的標簽獲得了數千萬點擊量,而無數較小的標簽則積累了數萬或數十萬的點擊量。和2019年的大多數社交網絡一樣,在接近邊緣的地方,我們可以看到陰謀論者和納粹分子。一般來說,這些標簽不是沖突或爭論的地方。沒有辯論或是對話,只有參與。它們不是真正的社區,甚至不是一種場所。它們是供人們嘲笑“安全空間”的安全空間。他們實際上是在進行匿名而又親密聚會。所以這是在……集會?

    Huge aerial focus groups

    龐大的空中焦點小組

    Open TikTok and You'll see a "For You" page, which is the app's best guess at what You might want to see, rather than offering your friend's content. Like any social app, it encourages you to interact with people you know, but it's really encouraging you to participate in the broader trend, to join the popular tag; Lip-syncing to songs or videos of speeches and performing along with them; Try to find a theme or trend you can participate in whenever you have time. TikTok allows people to participate in a variety of activities, not just post to friends, so users can also see things like the pleasures of other people's mundane jobs.

    打開TikTok會看到一個“For You”(推薦)頁面,這里是該應用對你可能想看的內容做出的最佳猜測,而不是提供你朋友的內容。和其他社交應用一樣,它鼓勵你和你認識的人互動,但它其實是在鼓勵你參與到更廣泛的潮流中去,加入流行的標簽;跟著歌曲或演講視頻對口型,跟著它們表演;一有空就想盡辦法找個能參與的主題或者趨勢。TikTok可以讓人們參加各種各樣的活動,而不僅僅是給朋友們發帖子,所以也能讓用戶看到各種東西,比如他人平凡工作中的樂趣。

    Here's TikTok's trumpworld: an adult looks at the camera and says in a high-pitched, off-key voice, "you can't get rid of drugs," but "want me to give up my weapon?"

    TikTok的特朗普世界是這樣的:一個成年人看著鏡頭,用變了調的高亢聲音說,“你沒本事掃清毒品”,但是“卻想讓我放棄自己的武器?”

    TikTok is good at capturing users' content not because friends are watching them, or because intimacy and privacy are protected in a smaller social environment, but because of its chaotic scale and bustling updating. Add a tag! Sing a song! No one can see! Well, there may be thousands or even millions of people who can see it, but they don't know who you are, so what's the big deal?

    TikTok之所以善于獲取用戶內容,不是因為有朋友在看他們,也不是因為在一個較小的社交環境中有親密感和隱私保護,而是因為它混亂的規模和熱鬧的不斷更新。加入一個標簽!唱一首歌!沒人看得見!好吧,可能有成千上萬甚至數百萬人看得見,但是他們又不知道你是誰,所以有什么大不了的? 紐約時報中英文網 http://www.gwbyzx.live

    Many of the most popular posts on TikTok are new versions of familiar viral content: witty, catchy, fun ideas, little pieces of music, one after another, until they finally dry up. There are, of course, carefully crafted pro-trump TikTok content: quick debates with imaginary liberals, jokes about the "snow generation" and a variety of slogans and political aphorisms (" want to be mad at conservatives, lie to him; Want to pout at the liberals and tell him the truth ") and come up with bumper sticker rhetorical questions (the equivalent of reading a Facebook meme out loud, sometimes in voice-over).

    TikTok上很多最受歡迎的帖子都是我們熟悉的病毒式內容的新版本:機智、上口、有趣的點子,小段音樂,它們一個接一個,直至終于枯竭。當然,也有人精心創作出支持特朗普的TikTok內容:和想象中的自由派人士快速辯論,拿“雪花一代”開玩笑,念出各種各樣的口號和政治格言(“想氣氣保守派,對他撒謊;想氣氣自由派,告訴他真相”),提出適合做保險杠貼紙的反問(效果相當于把Facebook上的米姆大聲朗讀出來,有時是用畫外音)。

    Videos of wearing MAGA hats, and others like them, do seem to be unique to the platform. One college student posted videos of him putting on a pro-trump hat and saying, "it's time to go to class." "Or" this is a good day for college trump supporters." He "wanted to make sure everyone understood his position"; He displayed a MAGA hat in his dodge ram and a trump flag in what appeared to be his front yard. One young woman excitedly Shared her new hat -- "trump 2020" -- but she had to keep it down because her baby was asleep. Another man in a hat said, "I'm going to offend someone today. Are you ready? Trump." He told the story of the postman angered by his hat, as if to a sympathetic audience.

    戴MAGA帽的視頻,以及其他類似的內容,的確顯得是這個平臺所獨有。有個大學生上傳了一些視頻,比如他戴上支持特朗普的帽子說,“要去上課了”;或者“這是大學特朗普支持者的一個好日子”。他“想確認所有人都明白他的立場”;他在自己的道奇公羊車上展示一頂MAGA帽,在看起來是自家前院的地方有一面特朗普旗。有個年輕女人興奮地分享她的新帽子——“特朗普2020”——但她得小聲點,因為她的孩子睡著了。還有個戴帽子的人說:“今天我要冒犯一下某人了。你們準備好了嗎?特朗普。”他講了他的帽子激怒了郵遞員的故事,好像是在講給一群心領神會的觀眾們聽。

    Despite alluding to risk and conflict, the general consensus is that trump supporters on TikTok seem to be acting alone and at peace, apparently enjoying their lives. They are describing dangerous, or at least risky, transgression, but they are expressing joy and, more often, contempt. The campus campaigner never interacted with students who disagreed with him. Snowflakes, a common topic of conversation, never appear to defend themselves or even complain. We don't see anyone complaining about the brand new MAGA bumper sticker. (we do, however, see a self-described "k-9 and SWAT officer" joking with a civilian out the window about her car being "damaged" by a Clinton sticker in his selfie.)

    盡管影射出風險和沖突,人們還是普遍認為,TikTok上的特朗普支持者們似乎都是獨自行動,且心平氣和,他們顯然很享受自己的生活。他們在描述危險,或者至少是有風險的越界行為,但他們在表達歡愉,還有更多的是輕蔑。那個校園競選人士從來不和與他道不同的同學互動。作為常見話題的“雪花”們,永遠不會現身來為自己辯解,甚至沒有抱怨。我們沒見到有誰對嶄新的MAGA保險杠貼紙表達過不滿。(不過,我們倒是可以看到一個自稱是“K-9和SWAT警官”的人在他自拍的視頻里和車窗外的一個平民開玩笑,說她的車被克林頓的貼紙“破壞”了。)

    What TikTok has gathered, in other words, is an unflattering representation of a President whose appeal, in the eyes of a particular group of supporters, comes from the increasingly salient fact that his power makes some people angry; Someone should, or at least someone should, tell these angry people that they are overreacting; If they are judging the President, there is no difference between what they say and what his supporters say.

    換言之,TikTok收集到的是一種坦率的呈現,這讓我們看到,在總統的某個特定支持者群體眼里,他的吸引力來自這樣一個越來越顯著的事實,那就是他的權力讓一些人生氣;應該有人、或者至少會有人去告訴這些生氣的人們,他們反應過度了;如果他們在評價總統,那么他們和他的支持者說的東西并沒有區別。

    It's trumpism without conflict, a consensus among a group that considers itself a dissenter, even though it's actually supporting the President, and it's supported by the President. They are a powerful force in 21st-century American and global politics, and this is their celebration, reflected in a Chinese video app for teenagers. The point is that I should be able to ask, "who are you?" and say, "I dare you!" while at the same time expressing support for the most powerful man in the world.

    這是去掉了沖突的特朗普主義,在這個自認為是異議者的群體中成為一種共識,盡管他們實際上在支持總統,而且得到了總統的支持。在21世紀的美國政治和全球政治中,他們是一股強大的力量,這是他們的慶典,通過一款面向青少年的中國視頻應用折射出來。重點在于我應該可以一邊質問“你們憑什么”,一邊說“諒你們也不敢”,而與此同時,這一切都是在表達對那個世界上最具權勢的人的支持。
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